Is the entry for the “Brixashulty” (RotW) erroneous?

I can’t seem to find any errata on this, but some of the entries of the Brixashulty (RotW p. 186-187) seem wrong to me. Specifically I am thinking of these:

Saves:

The Brixashulty has 2 HD, which as an animal type grants it a bonus of +3 on Fortitude and Reflex saves. It has Dex +3, Con +3 and Wis +1 and no other feats or racial modifiers on saves. If I haven’t missed anything that would give it Fort +6, Ref +6 and Will +1. However in the entry it says the Brixashulty has Fort +7, Ref +7, Will +2.

Bull Rush

A Brixashulty has Str +1 and a +4 racial bonus on bull rush performed after its gore attack (which is specifically what I am talking about). Since no other modifiers are added, shouldn’t this rather be a bull rush bonus of +5 instead of the said +7? The only way I can see this goes up to +7 is after a charge, which adds +2 to any bull rush, however the description doesn’t say anything about a charge being necessary.

Is there an option to circumvent creating an entry in the character advancement log in Genesis 6.1.2 when creating a hero rank >1 character?

When creating Splittermond player characters with Genesis 6.1.2, how do I create characters with a higher hero rank than 1? Currently, it looks like I have to create an event after regular hero rank 1 creation that awards my character experience points, and then use those to advance them.

Is there an option to circumvent that step as it creates an entry in the character advancement log which I’d like to circumvent.

Does this iptables entry indicate someone’s trying to break in?

Two days ago I built a Debian 10 server in the United States for use as a file server for my web application. When I created the server, I installed the fail2ban package and configured a basic, minimal firewall using the following rules:

*filter  # Allow all loopback (lo0) traffic and reject traffic # to localhost that does not originate from lo0. -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT -A INPUT ! -i lo -s 127.0.0.0/8 -j REJECT  # Allow ping. -A INPUT -p icmp -m state --state NEW --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT  # Allow SSH connections. -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT  # Allow inbound traffic from established connections. # This includes ICMP error returns. -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT  # Log what was incoming but denied (optional but useful). -A INPUT -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables_INPUT_denied: " --log-level 7  # Reject all other inbound. -A INPUT -j REJECT  # Log any traffic which was sent to you # for forwarding (optional but useful). -A FORWARD -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables_FORWARD_denied: " --log-level 7  # Reject all traffic forwarding. -A FORWARD -j REJECT  COMMIT 

Today when I checked my firewall, I found the following:

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT) target     prot opt source               destination f2b-sshd   tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere             multiport dports ssh ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere REJECT     all  --  127.0.0.0/8          anywhere             reject-with icmp-port-unreachable ACCEPT     icmp --  anywhere             anywhere             state NEW icmp echo-request ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere             tcp dpt:ssh state NEW ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere             state RELATED,ESTABLISHED LOG        all  --  anywhere             anywhere             limit: avg 5/min burst 5 LOG level debug prefix "iptables_INPUT_denied: " REJECT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere             reject-with icmp-port-unreachable  Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT) target     prot opt source               destination LOG        all  --  anywhere             anywhere             limit: avg 5/min burst 5 LOG level debug prefix "iptables_FORWARD_denied: " REJECT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere             reject-with icmp-port-unreachable  Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT) target     prot opt source               destination  Chain f2b-sshd (1 references) target     prot opt source               destination REJECT     all  --  49.88.112.114        anywhere             reject-with icmp-port-unreachable RETURN     all  --  anywhere             anywhere 

There are only two user accounts on the server, the root account and a personal account for myself. I’m not a firewall expert but the Chain f2b-sshd entry looks suspicious to me:

When I run whois on that IP address, I see that it originated somewhere in China.

I have other production servers that have been running for over a year that are built on Debian 9 and I’ve never seen entries like this ever.

  1. Does this entry indicate that someone at that IP address has tried to break into my server?
  2. If the answer is “yes”, is Debian 10 now recording all break-in attempts with entries like this?
  3. Are there additional steps I should take to secure my server?

How to write the invariants for one version of binary search insertion point (or leftmost entry) algorithm?

If we compare the binary search algorithm (leftmost or insertion point) on Wikipedia:

Algorithm 1:

function binary_search_leftmost(A, n, T):     L := 0     R := n     while L < R:         m := floor((L + R) / 2)         if A[m] < T:             L := m + 1         else:             R := m     return L 

with the one on Rosetta Code:

Algorithm 2:

BinarySearch_Left(A[0..N-1], value) {   low = 0   high = N - 1   while (low <= high) {       // invariants: value > A[i] for all i < low                      value <= A[i] for all i > high       mid = (low + high) / 2       if (A[mid] >= value)           high = mid - 1       else           low = mid + 1   }   return low } 

This binary search is the somewhat more complicated type of binary search, which is to find the leftmost index, or it can be the insertion point (so it is not the “exact match” binary search), as follows:

If the numbers in the array are:

11 22 22 33 44 55 66 

then if the target is 3, then the result should be 0 (3 inserted at index 0).

If the target is 59, then the result should be 6 (inserted at where 66 is), and if the target is 77, then the result should be 7 (inserted to the right of the maximum index, which is adding it as the new, final element).

I found it very easy to establish the invariants and correctness for Algorithm 1:

function binary_search_leftmost(A, n, T):     // Invariant:     // [L, R] inclusive is where the answer could be.     //   so note R is not n - 1 like the "exact match" case, but n,     //   because we can go "one step to the right" to insert     //   as index n     L := 0     R := n      // Invariant:     // note that we keep on looping when L < R, meaning the range     // [L, R] is not "closed".  When L == R, then we have reached     // the answer. Note that unlike the exact match case, here we     // always have an answer, so when L == R, then we already have     // an answer. (because [L, R] is where the answer is, and if     // L === R, we already have the answer either L or R and it cannot     // be anything else)     while L < R:         // Invariant:         // It might be better to use m := L + floor((R - L) / 2)         // here, because of the possible overflow bug. Here we consider         // if L and R differ by 1, such as L == 35 and R == 36, then         // m becomes min(L, R), and down below, since there can be         // only two cases: L := m + 1 which is 36, or R = m which is 35,         // that means the range [L, R] always shrinks.  If L and R          // differ by 2 or more, then it is obvious that [L, R] will         // always shrink.  When L and R differ by 0, the loop will not         // continue. So here we established that there will be no         // infinite loop         m := floor((L + R) / 2)         // if target is, say 55, and A[m] is 25 or 54, now we are         // disqualifying 25...A[m], so we set the lower bound L         // to m + 1 (so we disqualify m as well)         if A[m] < T:             L := m + 1         // Here it is T <= A[m]         // if target is, say 55, and A[m] is 55, 56, 100, or 1000         // now our answer could still be m, because m could be the         // leftmost (we don't know yet), so we don't disqualify m         // and so we disqualify m + 1 and all the way to the end         // of array, so we set R = m         else:             R := m     // Finally, when L == R, we could return either L or R     // In fact, it may be good to assert L == R here     return L 

However, for Algorithm 2, I found it quite difficult to establish invariants. It will be kind of like [low, high + 1] could be where the answer falls into. And if I imagine a high2 === high + 1, then maybe everything can fall into place, with

high = N - 1  high2 = high + 1 = N - 1 + 1 = N   (same as Algorithm 1)  while (low <= high) while (low < high + 1)             (same as Algorithm 1, see below) while (low < high2)                (same as Algorithm 1)  high = mid - 1 high2 = high + 1 = mid - 1 + 1 high2 = mid                        (same as Algorithm 1) 

but the line

mid = (low + high) / 2 

becomes

mid = (low + high2 - 1) / 2 

(I think it is assuming integer arithmetics) so then it is shifting the answer to 0.5 to the left sometimes (and therefore 1 less if taking the floor). But if we look at [low, high] === [35, 37] or [35, 36] or [35, 35], they still work out well. Overall, the invariants seem somewhat awkward and unclear. Are there actually some ways to establish good invariants and correctness for Algorithm 2?

Showing “this is secure” on credit card entry screen

Should I show some sort of “this site is secure” puffery (e.g. lock image, or some brief “this site is secure” boilerplate) on my credit card payment screen? If so, what should it look like? If not, why not?

I do want my customers to feel confident (as well as actually be safe) if they choose to enter their credit card details to pay my clients. I also want them to learn a healthy cynicism. Most of my customers are likely to have a very low level of technical knowledge about internet security and are usually either too trusting, and (in some cases) too suspicious of the wrong things.

I even had a customer call me up saying he wasn’t sure if my payment page was secure because it didn’t have any “padlock” image within the page. (yes, the page had a valid SSL certificate, the customer had the correct URL, and his version of Chrome was showing it with the green padlock with the “Secure” label at the time – after pointing this out he was happy to proceed).

I just feel it’s a bit strange to splash a “this is secure” badge on a page because I know it means nothing, technically – because a phishing page would just as easily show the exact same badge.

Assumption: that my site is actually secure (let’s just say I’ve tried my best and will continue to improve as much as possible).

For reference, here is the page as it currently stands:

Here’s a mockup of what I mean:

UPDATE after some modifications:

What happen if the L1 cache has the address entry with write_back attribute. Will that address be available in L2 cache?

I have the TLB entry for a particular address. This address has write-back attributes in both L1 cache and L2 cache. My queries are: 1> if L1 cache entry has write-back, can it be write-back in L2? 2> if L1 cache entry has write-back, then updated values will not be written into DDR until we apply flush. Does the same behaviour like DDR is applicable for L2 cache also?

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