When or why would someone use a programming language (Swift, Java, C++, Rust etc…) over an engine like Unity?

Everytime I’ve read about people asking whether they should write their game in C++ or Unity, Unity is usually the default answer, unless they want to go through the hassle of creating an engine by themselves when Unity already does everything for you. If that’s the case is there ever a case where writing a game in C++, Java, Rust etc… is better than using Unity? If so what are these cases?

Does unarmed proficiency get downgraded in Pathfinder 2e polymorph spells (animal form etc.)?

Every polymorph spell that grants you special attacks in your battle form notes that you are trained with these attacks. They are also always unarmed attacks. Does your proficiency bonus for these attacks get a downgrade if you are usually an expert with unarmed attacks, and now you are only trained?

Arguments for:

  • "Trained" is not just proficiency in general, but the name of one of the proficiency levels in particular. The descriptions could have said "You apply your proficiency for unarmed attacks" or just nothing, because every class is at least trained with unarmed attacks.
  • Animals are not usually very educated (see also: elephants with high strength and medium athletics)
  • This could be meant to keep you from getting too powerful with these attacks or exploit monk abilities with them, as the attacks allow you to use your own attack modifier if it is higher than the (relatively high) modifier included in the spell.

Arguments against:

  • I seem to vaguely remember errata saying that yes, every class is trained in unarmed attacks. These descriptions could be a holdover from the time where that wasn’t clear.
  • There aren’t many skill downgrades in the game, and those are always described as obvious drawbacks (literally, in the case of the silvertongue elixir.) It seems strange to limit your character’s powers here and only here.
  • If you did just want to say that players don’t need to worry about proficiency penalties, should they want to use their own attack modifier, I guess that would be a concise way to say it.

Can I mention other games’ titles, characters, maps, weapons etc. in my game?

Let’s say I was about to make a quiz game where the questions are like this:

  • When was Fallout 4 released?
  • What is your first pickaxe in Minecraft?
  • Who do you have to kill as the last boss in Skyrim?

And let’s pretend I have 1000 of these questions, from 1000 games. What are the chances some of those 1000 could sue me, remove my game from the internet, pay them a fee etc.? Even if it becomes very popular.

Taking it one step further, could I buy their games, take in game screenshots personally, then use those as pictures in my own game?

Does it make a difference if it’s a free-to-play or a game that has to be bought?

Where can I find this Discipline that allows a Vampire to disbelieve in sunlight, stakes, etc. so strongly that it can ignore them?

I had a character around 2001 that I was working on for a game that fell apart, and while reading through some book I came upon a very high-power ability that allowed a Vampire to disbelieve in something so strongly that it didn’t exist for it any more. This could be anything, including doors, which would allow for entry into any room, or blood, which would be less than bright.

I have not been able to find this particular Discipline since, and I would love it if someone can tell me what it is and which sourcebook it’s in.

Are there any any public synchronous discussion forums (slack, discord, etc.) for Theoretical CS

I’m a 2nd year masters student studying theoretical CS (algorithms to be precise). I would like to know if there are any public synchronous discussion groups (slack, discord, etc.) on TCS. CSTheory StackExchange works well when someone has a specific question/query. I felt it would be awesome to have an online forum of people interested in TCS to discuss about various developments of the field and also talk about interesting papers and concepts.

Theoretical CS broadly encompass algorithms, complexity theory, applications of logic in CS, automata theory and also discrete math in general.

If enough people are interested we could create one in discord.

Can/Should I self-host marketing scripts (Facebook Pixel, Google Analytics, etc.)?

Many marketing providers and plugin providers provide embeddable scripts, but many don’t use a CDN so their response time is slow. They also DON’T cache their scripts because they need to update them from time to time (this is for Facebook pixel, Google and other big guys too) . This slows down the site loading speed.

I’m thinking of hosting some of the script files myself either on my servers or on a CDN, and auto-updating them whenever the original source file is updated (this would be done periodically and programmatically).

Can someone tell me what’s the pitfall of this strategy?

For example, Facebook and Google warn against self-hosting their scripts. I think their main concern is that users will have outdated scripts if these companies update them.

BUT – if I take really good care of that, then is it really an issue? If I check every 5 minutes and update my hosted file accordingly, then I’m assuming I could potentially have lost or bugged out data for those 5 minutes, but no more.

Should extended Latin characters in urls (ü, ö, etc.) be percent-encoded as standard?

I am putting together an English language site which contains its own German translation (don’t worry, I’ve lived in Germany and I have a degree in Germanic and Slavonic Studies, it’s proper German…).

I am wondering what the best practice is regarding extended Latin characters in URLs.

If I have a URL like:


Am I better to link to it internally as:

  • a) /fußgängerbrücke/
  • b) /fu%C3%9Fg%C3%A4ngerbr%C3%BCcke/
  • c) /fussgaengerbruecke/

I have no problem doing any of the above and I am quite happy to use .htaccess mod_rewrite if and where necessary to ensure that variants all 301 to the correct canonical page.

On that note, a secondary question: which format (if different) should I be using for the <link rel="canonical"> in the <head>?

[RAW| How can a Demilich use staves, scrolls, etc., and study their spellbooks from a distance?

3.5’s Demilich has the ability Phylactery Transference:

Headbands, belts, rings, cloaks, and other wearable items kept in close association with the demilich’s phylactery transfer all their benefits to the demilich no matter how far apart the demilich and the phylactery are located. The standard limits on types of items utilized simultaneously still apply.

I have a wizard demilich that has an extremely well-guarded phylactery way over that-a-way, and part of the phylactery’s protection involves the lich simply not visiting it any more than absolutely necessary, lest some freak combination of bad timing and a divination spell reveal its location or defenses.

However, the lich still wants to be able to use staves, scrolls, wands, and rods, and wants to study their spellbooks every night so they have their wizard spells available the next day. Ideally, they’d like to use the odd feather token or other one-shot wondrous item, with bonus points if they can access storage near their phylactery (eg., so their skull form can appear without any treasure, but can still pay for a night at an inn if they so choose).

They’re a 21st level wizard with 2 open non-epic feats and 500,000 gp to spend on magic items for this purpose. They do have Scribe Scroll and Craft Wondrous Item already, and crafting doesn’t cost XP (for the players, either). They also have an augmented Handy Haversack (with plenty of extra storage in the main area). They can also take levels in non-wizard classes, so long as all of those levels increase their wizard caster level (eg., taking levels of Loremaster is acceptable, but Eldrich Knight is out).

I’m looking for a RAW-compatible option for this recurring villain to have access to their non-wearable stuff while keeping it away from the players for now. If the PCs find the lich’s stash, which will include a journal functionally detailing their character sheet, the full ability of the lich to stay away from their phylactery for years on end must make sense. Whether the PCs can use any of the gear in the stash to have similar remote access is irrelevant (my presumption is that they wouldn’t, because Phylactery Transference will be key to the whole thing working, but if it works for them, great!).

So, short of GM Fiat, how can my floating skull swap between staves?

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