Everything You Need for a Car Camping Trip

Everything You Need for a Car Camping Trip

    Now that summer is upon us, many of us will be embarking on camping trips. Some travelers opt for traditional tent camping, and others will be renting RVs this season, but car camping is an option not to be overlooked. You do not need a spacious RV or camper; in fact, no matter what kind of car you drive, you can enjoy car camping; if you have the right gear, that is.

    If you prefer to the tent route versus sleeping inside your car, a rooftop Car Tent is a solid choice. Depending on what kind of car you have, there are a variety of different rooftop tents out there that are spacious, comfortable, and ideal for stargazing.

    Given that camping has been around since Homo erectus came down from the trees, it wouldn’t seem like we have many innovations left in the art of sleeping under the stars. That said, roof-top tents, pitched atop their lofty perches, are getting double-takes from a lot of ground-dwelling campers these days.

    If you are thinking about buying a Car Roof Tent, here is what you will need to know.
     
            Pros and cons of roof-top tents: Quick setup vs. steeper cost are key considerations.
               
            How to know which tent works with your vehicle: Check tent, vehicle and rack specs carefully before you buy.
                   
            How they attach to your vehicle: The floor bolts to your roof rack, so make sure you have an adequate setup.
       
    Though roof-top tents have become a phenomenon in the U.S. in recent years, they’ve been around for decades, gaining greater popularity initially in places like Australia, where camping above the realm of creepy crawlies was instantly recognized as a genius idea.

    Many roof-top tent owners today talk about how a high vantage point resonates with them on a primal level. Perhaps it’s harkening back to childhood and a love of treehouses—or deeper in our psyches, when we slept in trees so we could survey our surroundings from a safe vantage point before drifting off to dreamland.

    Pros of a Roof-Top Tent
     
            Pitching ease: It’s engineered for quick setup. Once in camp, you undo a few straps, pop it open and deploy the poles and ladder.
             
            Beefy construction: Generally, the floor, Camping Tent fabric and pole materials are extra robust and able to withstand stormy weather.
             
            Comfort: Most come with a super-plush foam mattress.
             
            Camp anywhere: Set up in a campground, parking lot, remote dirt track, wherever.
         
            Camp above the ground: Keeps your tent floor clear of rainwater runoff, crawling creatures and rocks and sticks.
         
            Camp on the level: Strategically placed blocks or rocks under tires can help you keep things on an even keel.
       
    Fitting a Roof-Top Tent to Your Vehicle

    Most roof-top tents weigh more than a hundred pounds, so you need to be sure that your rack is up to the task. If you do not have a roof rack yet, then you will need to consider your tent weight as you shop for a rack to serve as its foundation. The specs you need are not always easy to find, so you might have to contact your vehicle manufacturer and rack manufacturer directly to get the information you need.

    In its simplest form, a Camping Tarp Shelter is simply a rectangular piece of waterproof fabric. You hang the tarp above your body with a series of ropes, poles, and stakes. Tarps do not include a floor, bug netting, or walls. The purpose of the tarp is for protection from wind and rain while you sleep. There are dozens of ways to pitch a camping tarp in order to achieve this. Camping tarps range in size from 5” X 7” for an individual all the way up to 12” X 16” for multiple people.

    Tarps offer a more modular sleep system- In my opinion, this is the biggest benefit to tarp camping. You can easily adjust your setup to fit the conditions of the region where you plan to camp. For example, if there are no bugs, you do not need to bother with setting up your bivy or bug net. If there is no rain, you do not need to bother with the tarp. If the night is wet and buggy, you can set up your tarp and bug net. Your options are open.

    After a daylong adventure away from camp or along the trail, you have earned a comfy place to perch. Chair designers have gone a little wild in recent years, so you have a lot of options for your downtime gear.

    When choosing an Outdoor Camping Chair, consider the following factors:
       
            End use: For backpacking, weight and packed size are the key stats. For front country camping, comfort is what matters most.
             
            Size/height: If you need a roomy chair, bigger is better. Low chairs are nice for concerts and uneven or sandy terrain. High chairs are easier to get in and out of.
             
            Design preference: Options include classic, two-legged, three-legged, rocker, glider and more. If an innovative chair is intriguing, give it a sit test before you buy it.
       
    When looking to invest in the best Outdoor Parasol and a sturdy parasol base, it is important to take in both style and function. Ask yourself how big your garden parasol needs to be to cover both guests and your garden table, if alfresco dining is your priority. Look at where the sun falls on your garden and whether a parasol needs an angle function to provide shade throughout the day. It is also important to consider how decorative you want your garden parasol to be – will it draw the eye or simply act as a subtle accessory to provide shade.

    When it comes to your garden parasol base, think about how often you intend to move your parasol. Does it need to be light and agile or heavy and sturdy? The size of your parasol base will also be determined by how large your umbrella is. Some parasols come with their own base but, with others, there is the option to mix and match.

What Are Evaporative Coolers? Here’s Everything You Need to Know

Looking for a way to beat the heat? If you do not have a central air conditioning system in your home — or if you do but are researching more environmentally friendly or affordable options — you might be wondering if evaporative air coolers are right for you.
The answer is … it depends.
Understanding how evaporative coolers work is a crucial part of figuring out if one will work well in your home. If you are new to evaporative cooling, there is a lot to learn. Here is everything you need to know about how evaporative coolers work — and how to decide if you should invest in one.

What Are Evaporative Coolers?
An evaporative air cooler is a type of air conditioner that works by harnessing the power of evaporation to cool air temperatures. When water evaporates, it turns from liquid to gas. As it does so, the highest-energy particles leave the water first, and this leads to a drop in temperature. This is why a moist cloth on your forehead feels good on a hot day — it is actually helping to lower your head temperature as the water evaporates.
The same scientific principles apply to the evaporative cooling process when it comes to your home air. In a dry environment, the simple process of evaporation can help lower the temperature of the air. You may have felt this for yourself if you have ever misted the air around you to feel cooler on a hot summer day. An evaporative air conditioner uses the same idea, but it adds technology to make the process more efficient — and less messy — than just spraying a room with water and hoping for the best.

How do Evaporative Coolers Work?
An evaporative cooling system takes basic evaporation and automates it to efficiently lower the temperature of the air in your home. In general, the machine will consist of a fan, a thick pad, a water reservoir and some additional controls for fine-tuning the results. The fan draws dry, hot air into the machine and across the cooler pads. These thick pads absorb water from the reservoir and have many layers to increase the surface area. As the hot air crosses the pad, the water molecules on the surface evaporate, which causes the air temperature inside the electric air cooler to drop — often by as much as 20 degrees. The fan then blows that cold air into your room, where you can enjoy the chill on a hot day.
Evaporative coolers can have other useful parts built into them as well. Many utilize air filters and pads that are designed to improve air quality by reducing allergens and minimizing mildew growth — an important consideration for anyone with allergies or other respiratory concerns. A water pump, while not strictly necessary, can streamline the absorption into the cooling pad. Some models offer the option of adding an ice pack to further cool the air the fan blows out into the room. Varying fan speeds, oscillating functions and remote control are also useful features.
A portable air cooler is a great way to see if evaporative cooling will work in your home without making a big investment upfront. Portable coolers come with wheels to easily move them from room to room for a little extra chilling exactly where you need it. You can also use these outside as long as you can reach an outlet to plug them in. This makes portable evaporative coolers welcome accessories to a picnic, pool party or any other outdoor gathering where people would appreciate a cool breeze. They still work best in dry places, but you won’t have to worry about any special venting (as with portable air conditioners) or humidity build-up (as with indoor evaporative cooler use). If you’re interested in experimenting to see what evaporative coolers are all about, a portable version is a fine way to get started.

A large industry ceiling fan pushes air down to the living level by pulling from the air that it has above the blades to work with. The air is moved to the floor, and then recirculated back up to above the blades after it spreads across the room and moves back up the walls. Thus, moving back above the blades to repeat the process.
If a fan does not have enough space between the blades and walls or any other solid obstruction, there will be a vacuum affect created above the blades, and there will be no air for the fan to continue to circulate. With no air to circulate there will be no breeze below the ceiling fan.
Currently, a number of works and industries operate in a state of polluted air, which is not well ventilated. Therefore, the necessary need is how to better deal with the environmental situation. Industrial exhaust fans are the solution to this requirement. This is an item with air circulation function to eliminate hot air, odors … This industrial fan has a large capacity and wind flow. They are suitable for areas with large acreage such as factories, warehouses, breeding facilities.

Electric heaters, the device for heating rooms that converts electric current to heat by means of resistors that emit radiant energy. Resistors may be composed of metal-alloy wire, nonmetallic carbon compounds, or printed circuits. Heating elements may have exposed resistor coils mounted on insulators, metallic resistors embedded in refractory insulation and encased in protective metal, or a printed circuit encased in glass. Fins may be used to increase the area that dissipates the heat. Home electric heaters also are used for domestic central heating and for materials processing in the industry.

Everything You Wanted To Know About Titanium

Everything You Wanted To Know About Titanium
If steel and titanium are both equal in strength, then aluminum is half the strength. When you get into the 7000 series of aluminum they get to about two thirds the strength of titanium. The problem is that the ductility of aluminum is less than steel. This is what comes into play when designing parts, especially the axles and some bolts, like cylinder head bolts, the stretchiness becomes an issue with titanium. And the technical term for that is modulus of elasticity. That’s why a when looking at a titanium spring, it has less coils in it. With the modulus number of titanium being half of steel it’s going to flex twice as much for the same amount of load. 
So let’s give an example. Let’s say it’s a steel bolt and you give it 1,000 pounds of force on the bolt, the bolt is going to stretch a certain amount. A titanium bolt with that same 1000 pounds of force is going to stretch twice as much. Because of stretching it will still carry the load as long as you are within the elastic limit. That’s why people say they have a problem with the bolt stretching, but they both stretch until they come up to the clamp load that holds the assembly together. In motorcycle terms we see this in the triple clamps. There have only been a few riders we know that have the ability to tell the difference between steel bolts and titanium bolts. That same rider can tell the difference between 15 foot-pounds and 18 foot-pounds of torque. There are only a few riders that are that sensitive to tell the tiny differences in the triple clamps. Across the board right now we pretty much have everybody running titanium triple clamp bolts and titanium front axle pinch bolts.
The precursor to it, everyone talks about the factory teams having the advantages. Back in the ‘60s and ‘70s, with the titanium coming out of the aerospace industry, a lot of the factory teams had access and the budget to be able to build titanium fasteners. Back in the ‘70s, going into the early eighties, the machining of titanium was quite tricky. The CNC machines and the quality of the cutting tools to cut the material were still relatively expensive and hard to handle. If you talk to anyone that has been around motocross for a long time like Roger DeCoster, back in the ‘70s he had bikes totally decked out with titanium fasteners with the factory programs. But for privateers it was really hard to get their hands on it. Then CNC machines were more available, but this is where a lot of the bad wrap started with titanium axles and fasteners. CNC machines were coming along and people could take titanium bar and machine it and make a fastener by just purely machining it out of bar stock. The problem with that is if you want to make an aircraft quality fastener, it needs to be hot forged, meaning it needs a forged head to get the proper grain structure, followed by the proper heat treating and then you need to have a rolled thread. 
When you put a piece of bar stock into a CNC machine and machine it, you build up stress risers in the surface and they look like little Grand Canyon fishers on the microscopic level and then they would get fatigue cracks under the head or they get fatigue cracks in the threads and the bolts would break. Titanium seems to be more sensitive to the finish of the surface. This is where people were having random breakages with titanium and they were calling it brittle or saying it didn’t have the strength of steel. But this was a processing problem, not a problem with the actual material.
When it comes time for assembly, we recommend to use anti-seize of some type. It can be an aluminum or copper anti-seize, but better than that, we like to use moly assembly paste. So the same moly paste that you’d put on your cam lobes. Look for one with a 40 percent moly content. The molybdenum gets ground into the surface and prevents any galling between the titanium and aluminum, or ti on titanium nut.  With axles, a thin layer of grease is recommended so the bearing isn’t beating on the dry axle.  Then, when you’re doing your normal maintenance pull them out and drop them in 409 or Simple Green to soak them overnight or if you have an ultrasonic cleaner they’ll come out super bright and clean again. In some places you need to use Loctite like on rear sprockets, you can use blue Loctite on it and it actually also keeps the bolts from galling. 
Titanium screw(Most of titanium alloy screws are titanium Gr.5, Ti-6al4v) have high specific strength, tensile strength up to 100-140kgf/mm2, and density is only 60% of steel.
The medium temperature strength is good, the working temperature is several hundred degrees higher than aluminum alloy. Titanium alloy screws can maintain the required strength at moderate temperature, can work for a long time at 450 ~ 500 ℃.
Good corrosion resistance, titanium alloy screws will form a uniform and dense oxide film on the surface of the atmosphere. It has the ability to resist a variety of media erosion. It has good corrosion resistance in oxidizing and neutral media and excellent corrosion resistance in seawater, wet chlorine and chloride solutions. However, in a reducing medium such as hydrochloric acid, the corrosion resistance of titanium is poor.
Titanium alloy screw has good low-temperature performance, and titanium alloy with extremely low gap element can maintain a certain plasticity at -253 ℃.
Titanium alloy screws has low elastic modulus, low thermal conductivity, no ferromagnetism, high hardness, poor stamping property and good thermoplasticity.
Using plus cathodic polarization to reduce or prevent metal corrosion is called cathodic protection that could be achieved by two methods: impressed current protection and sacrificial anode protection.Impressed current protection makes the whole surface of the protected metal structure work as cathode, source negative pole will be connected to the metal while source positive pole connected to auxiliary anode to protection a metal equipment. Cathodic polarization occurs when current of auxiliary anode goes through the electrolyte solution and concentrates on the metal cathode, the current goes back to the source and the total potential of the metal will be reduced. If the protective current is big enough, anode of the metal structure becomes insoluble, meanwhile, the cathodic reduction reaction only occurs on the metal surface, the impressed current could achieve full protection. Anode materials develop and become various under a variety of anode working conditions. MMO titanium anode that using titanium as substrate and high catalytic activity of platinum group metal oxide as the coating with good electrical conductivity, small output resistance and good formability without corrosion applied widely in seawater, fresh water and soil environments. The protected metal connecting metal with smaller negative potential to form anode and the protected metal in the electrolyte solution to form a big source, this is called sacrificial anode protection, current flows through anode, electrolyte solution and then goes to the metal equipment to make metal equipment cathodic polarization protection.
Normally, titanium anode in the soil bed works with current density of 100A/m2, life span of 20 years and consumption rate of 0.1mg/A. With 100A/m2 and more than 20 years’ life span in the shallow soil and deep soil environments and without anodic passivity and dissolution, titanium anode is the most ideal auxiliary anode material.
Grade 2 titanium is considered the workhorse of the titanium family and is suitable for most applications. If greater corrosion resistance is required, welded tube can be produced in grades 7, 12, 16, or 26 according to ASTM B-338. If greater strength is required, grades 3 and 12 tubing are available.
Not only is standard-size grade 2 titanium pipe and tube available from inventory or quick production runs, larger sizes also can be produced by independent fabricators. Many of them also can design and produce complete piping systems, heat exchangers, and pressure vessels. This geographically diverse fabrication base has more than 25 years of engineering and design experience.
Titanium as a fastener material
Titanium is banned in the current Formula One engine regulations from being used for threaded fasteners, despite its attractive attributes for such components. The rules specify that threaded fasteners must be made from alloys based on one of three elements – iron, cobalt or nickel – and this is planned to be carried forward for the new V6 turbo engines we will see in use from 2014 onwards. It should be noted though that there is no similar regulation governing the use of titanium fasteners on the chassis.
Besides titanium’s obviously attractive property of low density, its elastic modulus is the other property that makes it a good candidate material for fasteners, both of the internally and externally threaded varieties. The use of nuts with lower modulus than the male fastener is known to reduce the stress concentration effect at the first thread, and improves the distribution of load over the length of the engaged threads. Where high-modulus materials are specified for both internal and external threads, one way to achieve the same effect is to use combinations of male and female parts with very slightly differing thread pitches.
When considering the design of a stud or Gr5 titanium bolt used for cyclically loaded fastener, it is important to consider both the fastener stiffness and the stiffness of the parts being clamped. A simple formula involving these quantities dictates how the service load is shared between the unloading of the joint, and the extra load borne by the fastener. This relationship has been covered in one of the early RET Monitor articles on fasteners and in a past article in Race Engine Technology magazine*.
The smaller the stiffness of the fastener is compared to the stiffness of the joint, the less of the service load that is borne by the fastener. Ideally, what we want from a fastener material is for it to be strong – fatigue strength is the significant strength in a cyclically loaded fastener – and to have low stiffness. Titanium can score well here, and its lightness is a bonus, although that shouldn’t come as a surprise. Most metallic materials fall within a pretty narrow range of specific modulus (modulus divided by density) and so any material with a low modulus is likely to have a low density. There are some notable exceptions to this ‘rule of thumb’, such as beryllium, but most common aluminium, magnesium, titanium and steel alloys we are likely to commonly use have very similar specific modulus values.
There are some technical problems though with the use of titanium as a male fastener. Its tendency to gall at low levels of load when sliding means it needs to be installed with special grease, or needs to have its surface treated to prevent the problem, especially where it is used in conjunction with a titanium nut. However, the problem is far from insurmountable, and racing motorcycles of 20 years ago were festooned with such fasteners throughout the engine and chassis, as are many racecars, motorcycles and boats today. It seems strange that they are now outlawed in bespoke race engines at the highest levels of motorsport, but are affordable to low-budget racers.
Titanium bolts
About titanium bolts
Bicycle titanium bolt come closest to steel in terms of strength but Ti is 47% lighter.
Note, although Ti bolts can be as strong as mild steel bolts,they are no substitute for high tensile steel bolts. Syntace sell some high quality Ti bolts and here is what they say about high-tensile bolt replacement.
[font=”Proxima Nova”, Arial, helvetica, system-ui, sans-serif]Why titanium’s the best option[/font]
[font=”Proxima Nova”, Arial, helvetica, system-ui, sans-serif]There are a few materials approved by the Association of Professional Piercers (APP), but implant-grade titanium is the one most piercers recommend for initial piercings.
Here’s why:
It’s nickel-free. Nickel is the most common contact allergen in the world, according to the European Centre for Allergy Research Foundation. It’s regularly found in jewelry for piercings. Titanium doesn’t contain any nickel, which makes it safe for people with sensitive skin or a nickel allergy.
It has a high strength-to-density ratio. In other words, titanium is considerably less dense than stainless steel and other metals, but just as strong (if not more so). This makes it durable and less likely to bend or break.
It’s lightweight. That low density we just talked about is what makes titanium studs lighter than those made with other metals.
It can be anodized. Titanium’s dark metallic color is cool as is. But unlike other stainless steel, you can get titanium in other colors. This is done through anodizing, an electrochemical process that changes the surface color while maintaining safety.[/font]

The runners-up
As long as you don’t have a known metal allergy or extremely sensitive skin, you have other safe options outside of titanium.
The following are jewelry materials approved by the APP for fresh piercings.
Surgical steel
Surgical steel is a popular choice for piercings because it’s affordable, durable, and safe for most. It does contain some nickel, but thanks to a low rate of transfer, your skin is unlikely to notice.
Just remember that not all steel jewelry is of the same quality. Only a few specific grades are biocompatible, meaning the jewelry won’t oxidize, tarnish or react with skin.

Everything you wanted to know about UV Lamps

The use of UV light as a curing technology has been around for a long time. In the last few years it has become more popular since the technology on the lamps and the materials side has greatly improved. Applications are now on sheetfed, web and wide format inkjet equipment. The major advantages of UV inks are:
1)    Press sheets are dry when they come off the press
2)    Higher throughput speed than Infra-Red drying
3)    No Volatile Organic Compounds released in the air
4)    Resist smudging and abrasion
5)    UV Coatings have a “wet look”
6)    Do not have solvents to penetrate uncoated stocks
Most printers buy UV power supply systems that may be supplied by the manufacturer of the equipment but made by someone else. Understanding how UV lamps work can improve their performance and save you money.
There are series power supply for different applications. Low-pressure UV lamps may be used for disinfecting purposes, curing nails and dental fillings, or water purification. The type of lamp used in printing applications is usually a medium pressure, linear (straight tubes), mercury vapor arc lamp. Medium pressure UV lamps cure inks and coatings instantly. It is a photochemical, not a heat process. It allows the equipment to run at very high speeds for extended periods.
General use light bulbs have a filament. The electricity causes the filament to glow, producing light. Medium pressure UV lamps do not have a filament. They utilize a high voltage charge to ionize a mercury/gas mixture in the lamp creating a plasma that emits UV light. This system requires a high voltage/amperage power supply (typically a magnetic ballast transformer with a high voltage capacitor bank). The ballast is wired in series with the lamp and performs two functions. Initially, the ballast provides a high voltage charge to ‘strike’ or ‘ionize’ the mercury. Then, once the mercury is ionized, the ballast reduces the voltage and amperage required to keep the mercury ionized and emit a stable stream of UV light.
These lamps generate a specific wavelength to cure the inks or coatings. Currently, most of these lamps operate at 300 to 600 watts per inch with some newer systems using lamps that generate up to 1000 watts per inch. So a 30 inch UV bulb may be capable of an output of 30,000 watts. They also operate at very high temperatures (850 to 950 Celsius or 1550 to 1750 Fahrenheit).
This type of UV lamp is made from Quartz. A general glass product would not be able to withstand the high temperatures. An inert gas (usually argon) is pumped into the quartz sleeve and then mercury is added to achieve the proper electrical specification. Iron and gallium are occasionally added to achieve special wavelengths. The tubes are sealed and the correct electrical end-fittings are added to complete the lamp.
These lamps need a powerful cooling system to offset the high operating heat. They are usually air or air and water cooled. They also use reflectors to maximize the ultraviolet light delivered to the substrate. There must be an even flow of air or water across the lamp for proper curing. If lamps run too cool they may not cure the ink or coating. Some systems use outside air for cooling. As the seasons change, depending on your geographic location, you may need to adjust your fan speed or increase/decrease water temperature to maintain proper cooling.
Contamination is another problem that can affect lamp performance. Due to the high heat air contaminants such as spray powder from other presses or dust particles can bake on the lamps creating a haze. This decreases the performance of the lamps. Ideally, even after extended use the quartz should be completely clear.

The xenon searchlight is delivered with a built-in xenon power supply, excluding large and heavy external power supply’s. This design enables easy installation (no external power supply TA values or IP-ratings to be considered) and significant cost savings, by reducing engineering and eliminating these cables and connections:
– Cable between power source and external power supply
– Cable between power supply and searchlight
– Remote signal cable between searchlight and power supply

UV LED systems have a bright future in industrial and life science applications even given the fact that humans can’t see the light. In particular, LEDs in the UV-C band (generally 100–280 nm) promise to revolutionize sterilization and disinfection and could bring safe water to people around the globe and safer conditions to our medical facilities (Fig. 1). LEDs Magazine, in fact, covered a UV LED Curing with 4in1 designed for such an application earlier this year. Still, we hear that such applications need LEDs with higher performance and longer lifetimes to truly penetrate the market. But UV product developers need to rethink LED lifetime as another variable in the engineering process.

Everything You Need To Know About High Bay Lighting

What is high bay lighting?
High bay lighting is the go-to solution in many workplaces for achieving bright and uniform illumination across large, high-ceilinged indoor spaces. It’s most often found in warehouses, department stores, manufacturing areas and sports halls.
But what is LED high bay light exactly, and how does it differ from other high-intensity lighting solutions?
Rather than any single fixture style, the term ‘high bay lighting’ refers to the positioning of the luminaires, and as such it covers a broad and flexible range of lamp types and fittings. As a rule of thumb, MatePro UFO highbay light is usually the best option for any indoor setting where the floor-to-ceiling height measures 8m (roughly 25’) or taller.
For less lofty spaces, low bays (or even a series of appropriately arranged floodlights) may be enough to get the job done. But, where indoor work areas span a great deal of vertical and horizontal space, the lighting solution needs to be both powerful and flexible.
In this guide, we’ll tell you everything you need to know about the various types of high bay lighting configurations available, and the sorts of environments they’re best suited to.

What’s the difference between high bay and low bay lighting?
Low bay lighting setups, as the name suggests, are more commonly used where there’s less vertical distance for the light to cover. In these situations, lower mounting positions will often allow for a shallower lighting angle, making it easier to illuminate vertical surfaces or to create specific lighting effects in smaller zones.
High bays are most often found in warehouses, gantries, above a large shop or conference floors, at sports facilities, in expansive factory or workshop environments…anywhere that needs uniform, brilliant illumination to maximise visibility and light quality over a wide area.
Apart from the different mounting altitudes, another key contrast between high bay and low bay light setups is that high bays tend to rely on more careful consideration of layout, fittings and components.
T-line linear highbay light must be chosen and positioned to ensure the light they cast is strong, uniform, and equally effective at hitting both vertical and horizontal surfaces from a wider angle.
To achieve this, high bay lighting tends to demand the more exacting placement of lamps and reflectors. When configured properly, high bay setups can achieve superb quality and intensity of light across the entirety of a wide, tall space.

LED stands for light-emitting diode which is a light conductor that emits white light when a current flows through it. LED panels are commonly used in video and photography as a directional light source. LED’s are known for their powerful white light, low energy consumption, and durability.
LED panel lights have become a popular option for creators in all different industries. Due to their practical and versatile design, there has been a surge in market demand for light panels. However, not all lights are created equal.

The LED Bulkheads’ cool white light is an attractive alternative to the harsh orange output of SOX lamps. With efficiency comparable to that of fluorescent lighting, the LED Bulkhead is smaller than other lamps of the same output. Its instant start, with no warming-up period is a significant advantage for event triggered security lighting. The LED Bulkhead, rated at up to 60W, is the most powerful of a range that starts from 20W. With supply inputs ranging from 23.5W to 70.6W, this range has an electrical efficiency of 90%. The LEDs typically yield 100 lumens per watt and the light has a colour temperature of 5000 to 7500 K.

LED Tri-proof Lights are durable and eco-friendly alternative lighting systems to traditional fluorescent LED tube lights. LED Tri-proof Lights are designed to withstand severe environments and will help you reduce your energy consumption by up to 80%.
LED Tri-proof Lights are specifically built to withstand conditions susceptible to water, dust and corrosion impacts. Our Lighting tri-proof Lights are Incredibly durable and long lasting, they are highly resistant to heavy impacts.

Threaded Rod – Everything You Need To Know

What is threaded rod?
Threaded rod, often referred to as a stud, is a rod of varying length that is threaded in a helical structure.
Similar in appearance to a screw, the threading extends around and along the rod to cause rotational movements when in use. Threaded rods combine linear and rotational movement to create strong resistance to pressure.
The direction of the rotation caused by a full threaded rod depends on whether the rod has a right-hand thread, left-hand thread, or both.
Designed to withstand very high levels of pressure and tension, threaded rods are a common fixing for support systems and used for a variety of applications.
What is a threaded rod used for?
Threaded rods are fasteners and functions thanks to the threading, which causes a tightening action from the rotational movement. Threading on a rod allows other fixings like bolts and nuts to easily screw or fasten to it.
Threaded rods have many applications, effectively working as a pin to fasten or connect two materials together.
Also used to stabilize structures, they can be inserted into various materials like concrete, wood or metal to either temporarily create a steady base during construction or they can be installed permanently.
How to choose the correct threaded rod
There are several types of threaded rod available on the market that will suit different purposes, conditions and materials.
The fully threaded rod that Armafix supplies are usually used when effective grip strength is required through the entire length of the rod.
They are often used to align structures or are embedded into materials, like concrete, as the threading provides good resistance.
The material is another essential factor to consider when choosing the best-suited rod for your application.
Threaded rods are used in a variety of sectors and for several purposes such as construction, plumbing, manufacturing, marine, agricultural, oil extraction and contractor work.
How to cut threaded rod
Sometimes threaded rod will have to be cut to suit your project. It is a common question and not quite as simple as you might think. The rod can be difficult to hold in place and the threading can be affected.
Perhaps the easiest and more efficient way of cutting threaded rod is to use a rod cutter, which will produce a clean, burr-free cut with less effort and less time wasted, plus it is lightweight and can be used for overhead work.
Cutting threaded rod with a hacksaw
If you’re using a hacksaw, a good tip is to take a small block of wood and drill a hole through it to place your rod through.
Secure the rod in the vice with two nuts either side using a thin kerf, the rod can then be cut and held in place. Once it is cut, you can unscrew the nuts, which will tidy up the ends and keep the threading in good shape.
A simple illustration of this can be found here.
Another efficient method is to use a bench vice to hold the rod in place, and an angle grinder to cut the rod. Cut the road at a flat angle and be sure to wait a few minutes before touching the newly cut edge after using an angle grinder as it will be hot.
How to bend threaded rod
As well as cutting threaded rod, sometimes it needs to be bent in order to fit the intended application. This involves using a mounted bench vice and propane or Oxy-Acetylene torch and should be done with caution.
Placing two bolts in the vice again to clamp around the rod, fix the threaded rod securely in place. Apply the lighted torch on the part of the rod you wish to bend.
Metal can be damaged by too much heat, but for stainless steel – as a general rule of thumb – once it is a reddish colour, it is ready to bend. You can reheat the rod several times until you have the required shape.
Remember to use heavy-duty gloves and eye goggles!
How to join threaded rod
If you need to connect threaded rods, you can use connector bolts to get the required length and secure them together.
You can also use threaded rod plastic protection caps to cover and protect the ends.

The welded washers are usually there for shear (tension wouldn’t require the weld EDIT: IT WOULD REQUIRE THE WASHER, THOUGH). If you have adequate friction resistance or shear keys under the baseplate, you don’t need welded washers. If you designed the connection to resist lateral loads through shear in the bolts, it depends. If you designed for 2 of the 6 bolts (I’m guessing at your layout) to take all of the shears, you probably don’t need the welded washers as long as your ok with movement of the base of the column equal to the diameter of the oversized hole (again, assuming it’s oversized) minus the anchor diameter (Not half, but all – what if the anchor is slightly off and hard against the opposite side of the hole? There’s a reason oversized holes are used in baseplates.) If you need all of the bolts to resist the shear, then you need to have welded washers at all of the bolts. If you don’t, you could have a couple bolts closer to the sides of the holes than others, so they’ll load first and prevent the others from loading until they have deflected and/or failed – and then the others engage with two fewer than needed and the rest fail.

How do I handle players that don’t care for the rules I put in place as the DM and question everything I do?

I am DMing a game of dnd 5e or close to it. It’s a homebrew campaign. We are mostly new to D&D with the exception of 2 players that play with other groups.

I have 2 players that seem to question everything I do as a DM and make the game hard to DM. One of the things they question is cantrips.

I had one of my players call my ruling stupid and log out. To put it into context I make my players roll to see if they can land the cantrip. 2 of my players have recently questioned why they have to roll at all and why it just doesn’t do what they believe it should do. But there is nothing in the rules about rolling and cantrips.

It was a cantrip called "mend" and he was trying to use it to repair his armor which had been broken. I made him roll to see how well he repaired it and he got a 2 so it didn’t repair much. He went behind my back and spoke to another player about how it was stupid and "that’s not how cantrips work" even though he was able to cast the spell, just not well.

I don’t want to just put my foot down and say "I’m the DM, what I say goes" but they won’t listen to my reasoning and just keep saying I’m wrong. How do I handle this situation? It’s getting to the point where I am considering stopping DMing all together.

With Blind Fighting style from Tasha’s Cauldron Of Everything, can you cast spells that require a target you can see?

Blind Fighting, as phrased in Tasha’s Cauldron Of Everything, contains additional wording beyond the description of mere Blindsight. The entry for Blind Fighting reads:

You have blindsight with a range of 10 feet. Within that range, you can effectively see anything that isn’t behind total cover, even if you’re blinded or in darkness. Moreover, you can see an invisible creature within that range, unless the creature successfully hides from you.

Using the optional Class Features for the Fighter class which are presented in TCoE, this Blind Fighting fighting style offers not only 10ft of Blindsight, but the wording above, which by my reading at least heavily implies that you should be able to cast spells which target a space, object, or creature "you can see", within the 10ft range of this ability.

You can explicitly "see an invisible creature", but does "you can effectively see anything that isn’t behind total cover" mean that you can cast sighted spells on targets within that 10ft range?

Can you use the Telekentic feat from Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything to break grapples?

With the new 5e book, Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything, there exists a new feat: "Telekentic"

You learn to move things with your mind, granting you the following benefits:

  • Increase your Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma score by 1, to a maximum of 20.

  • You learn the Mage Hand cantrip. You can cast it without verbal or somatic components, and you can make the spectral hand invisible. If you already know this spell, its range increases by 30 feet when you cast it. Its spellcasting ability is the ability increased by this feat.

  • As a bonus action, you can try to telekinetically shove one creature you can see within 30 feet of you. When you do so, the target must succeed on a Strength saving throw (DC 8 + your proficiency bonus + the ability modifier of the score increased by this feat) or be moved 5 feet toward or away from you. A creature can willingly fail this save.

My idea with this feat is that as a bonus action, you can presumably break your teammates from any grapple. As to the reason I bring up the definition of grapple from the appendix in Players Hand Book.

  • A grappled creature’s speed becomes 0, and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.

  • The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated (see the condition).

  • The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell.

My interpretation of bullet 3 of Grapple is that if I, a wizard, cast thunderwave/thunderstep/lightning-lure/telekinetic on a teammate, in such a way that, assuming they failed the save, they would be pushed/pulled out of reach of the grappler then grapple would be broken and the grappler has no way of contesting this.

The caveat with telekinetic feat however is that in the final sentence of bullet 3, the person being affected by the telekinetic push/pull can willingly fail. Therefore no check has to be made.


My friend group is in a bit of pickle over this.

I think, as per RAW, the grappler gets no chance to maintain grapple at all and the whether the grapple-e gets moved or not is based purely on if they pass or fail the saving throw of the spell. It’s just in the case of telekinetic they can voluntarily fail.

Some in my friend group believe that the save should be against the grappler, and not the grapple-e. Which then raises the question, does the grappler have to make the save (they arn’t being targeted by the spell, and is unfair to the caster/grappler depending on the saves and modifiers) or does the grappler contest the save by performing an athletics to maintain (this seems ridiculous unfair to the caster).

Furthermore, what if I target the grappler with telekinetic, they fail, do they then get a chance to maintain grapple and pull their grapple-e with them? Or does them holding onto the grapple-e cause them not be moved because moving grapple-e halves your movement and telekinetic moves them a total distance of 5 which is halved to zero.

If grapple-e gets moved with the grappler then it gives an unfair advantage to the caster of the spell as now they’re moving two people for one spell.

I would love to know other’s opinions on this.

My remark:

The grappler has no say in contesting the forced movement of the grapple-e by an external spell. Its purely between the grapple-e, who is being affected by the spell, and the person casting the spell.