**Task Description**

`interval_map<K,V>`

is a data structure that efficiently associates intervals of keys of type K with values of type V. Your task is to implement the assign member function of this data structure, which is outlined below.

`interval_map<K, V>`

is implemented on top of `std::map`

. In case you are not entirely sure which functions `std::map`

provides, what they do and which guarantees they provide, we provide an excerpt of the C++ standard here. (at the end)

Each key-value-pair (k,v) in the `std::map`

means that the value v is associated with the interval from k (including) to the next key (excluding) in the `std::map`

.

Example: the `std::map (0,'A'), (3,'B'), (5,'A')`

represents the mapping

- 0 -> ‘A’
- 1 -> ‘A’
- 2 -> ‘A’
- 3 -> ‘B’
- 4 -> ‘B’
- 5 -> ‘A’
- 6 -> ‘A’
- 7 -> ‘A’

… all the way to `numeric_limits<int>::max()`

The representation in the `std::map`

must be canonical, that is, consecutive map entries must not have the same value: `..., (0,'A'), (3,'A'), ...`

is not allowed. Initially, the whole range of K is associated with a given initial value, passed to the constructor of the interval_map data structure.

`#include <map> #include <limits> template<typename K, typename V> class interval_map { std::map<K,V> m_map; public: // constructor associates whole range of K with val by inserting (K_min, val) // into the map interval_map( V const& val) { m_map.insert(m_map.end(),std::make_pair(std::numeric_limits<K>::lowest(),val)); } // Assign value val to interval [keyBegin, keyEnd). // Overwrite previous values in this interval. // Conforming to the C++ Standard Library conventions, the interval // includes keyBegin, but excludes keyEnd. // If !( keyBegin < keyEnd ), this designates an empty interval, // and assign must do nothing. void assign( K const& keyBegin, K const& keyEnd, V const& val ) { if (!(keyBegin < keyEnd)) return; std::pair<K,V> beginExtra; std::pair<K,V> endExtra; bool beginHasExtra = false; bool endHasExtra = false; typename std::map<K,V>::iterator itBegin; itBegin = m_map.lower_bound(keyBegin); if ( itBegin!=m_map.end() && keyBegin < itBegin->first ) { if (itBegin != m_map.begin()) { beginHasExtra = true; --itBegin; beginExtra = std::make_pair(itBegin->first, itBegin->second); } // openRange for erase is prevIterator // insert (prevIterator->first, prevIterator->second) as well! } typename std::map<K,V>::iterator itEnd; itEnd = m_map.lower_bound(keyEnd); if ( itEnd!=m_map.end() && keyEnd < itEnd->first ) { endHasExtra = true; typename std::map<K,V>::iterator extraIt = itEnd; --extraIt; endExtra = std::make_pair(keyEnd, extraIt->second); // closeRange for erase is this iterator // insert (keyEnd, prevIterator->second) as well! } // 4 canonical conflicts: // beginExtra w/ mid // before-mid w/ mid (beginHasExtra==false) // mid w/ endExtra // mid w/ after-mid (endHasExtra==false) bool insertMid = true; if (beginHasExtra) { if (beginExtra.second == val) insertMid = false; } else { if (itBegin != m_map.begin()) { typename std::map<K,V>::iterator beforeMid = itBegin; --beforeMid; if (beforeMid->second == val) insertMid = false; } } if (endHasExtra) { if ( (insertMid && endExtra.second == val) || (!insertMid && endExtra.second == beginExtra.second) ) endHasExtra = false; } else { if ( (insertMid && itEnd!=m_map.end() && itEnd->second == val) || (!insertMid && itEnd!=m_map.end() && itEnd->second == beginExtra.second) ) itEnd = m_map.erase(itEnd); } itBegin = m_map.erase(itBegin, itEnd); if (beginHasExtra) itBegin = m_map.insert(itBegin, beginExtra); if (insertMid) itBegin = m_map.insert(itBegin, std::make_pair(keyBegin, val)); if (endHasExtra) m_map.insert(itBegin, endExtra); } // look-up of the value associated with key V const& operator[]( K const& key ) const { return ( --m_map.upper_bound(key) )->second; } }; `

**Key type**

K

- besides being copyable and assignable, is less-than comparable via operator<
- is bounded below, with the lowest value being std::numeric_limits::lowest()
- does not implement any other operations, in particular no equality comparison or arithmetic operators

**Value type**

V

- besides being copyable and assignable, is equality-comparable via operator==
- does not implement any other operations

**===========================================================================**

After submitting the code I got `You must adhere to the specification of the key and value type given above.`

Can anyone tell me what I did wrong? I know I should’ve used `const_iterator`

for my iterators but the error is talking about `K, V`

.

**===========================================================================**

`The following paragraphs from the final draft of the C++1x ISO standard describe the available operations on a std::map container, their effects and their complexity. 23.2.1 General container requirements §1 Containers are objects that store other objects. They control allocation and deallocation of these objects through constructors, destructors, insert and erase operations. §6 begin() returns an iterator referring to the first element in the container. end() returns an iterator which is the past-the-end value for the container. If the container is empty, then begin() == end(); 24.2.1 General Iterator Requirements §1 Iterators are a generalization of pointers that allow a C++ program to work with different data structures. §2 Since iterators are an abstraction of pointers, their semantics is a generalization of most of the semantics of pointers in C++. This ensures that every function template that takes iterators works as well with regular pointers. §5 Just as a regular pointer to an array guarantees that there is a pointer value pointing past the last element of the array, so for any iterator type there is an iterator value that points past the last element of a corresponding sequence. These values are called past-the-end values. Values of an iterator i for which the expression *i is defined are called dereferenceable. The library never assumes that past-the-end values are dereferenceable. Iterators can also have singular values that are not associated with any sequence. [ Example: After the declaration of an uninitialized pointer x (as with int* x;), x must always be assumed to have a singular value of a pointer. -end example ] Results of most expressions are undefined for singular values; the only exceptions are destroying an iterator that holds a singular value, the assignment of a non-singular value to an iterator that holds a singular value, and, for iterators that satisfy the DefaultConstructible requirements, using a value-initialized iterator as the source of a copy or move operation. §10 An invalid iterator is an iterator that may be singular. (This definition applies to pointers, since pointers are iterators. The effect of dereferencing an iterator that has been invalidated is undefined.) 23.2.4 Associative containers §1 Associative containers provide fast retrieval of data based on keys. The library provides four basic kinds of associative containers: set, multiset, map and multimap. §4 An associative container supports unique keys if it may contain at most one element for each key. Otherwise, it supports equivalent keys. The set and map classes support unique keys; the multiset and multimap classes support equivalent keys. §5 For map and multimap the value type is equal to std::pair<const Key, T>. Keys in an associative container are immutable. §6 iterator of an associative container is of the bidirectional iterator category. (i.e., an iterator i can be incremented and decremented: ++i; --i;) §9 The insert member functions (see below) shall not affect the validity of iterators and references to the container, and the erase members shall invalidate only iterators and references to the erased elements. §10 The fundamental property of iterators of associative containers is that they iterate through the containers in the non-descending order of keys where non-descending is defined by the comparison that was used to construct them. Associative container requirements (in addition to general container requirements): std::pair<iterator, bool> insert(std::pair<const key_type, T> const" t) Effects: Inserts t if and only if there is no element in the container with key equivalent to the key of t. The bool component of the returned pair is true if and only if the insertion takes place, and the iterator component of the pair points to the element with key equivalent to the key of t. Complexity: logarithmic iterator insert(const_iterator p, std::pair<const key_type, T> const" t) Effects: Inserts t if and only if there is no element with key equivalent to the key of t in containers with unique keys. Always returns the iterator pointing to the element with key equivalent to the key of t. Complexity: logarithmic in general, but amortized constant if t is inserted right before p. size_type erase(key_type const" k) Effects: Erases all elements in the container with key equivalent to k. Returns the number of erased elements. Complexity: log(size of container) + number of elements with key k iterator erase(const_iterator q) Effects: Erases the element pointed to by q. Returns an iterator pointing to the element immediately following q prior to the element being erased. If no such element exists, returns end(). Complexity: Amortized constant iterator erase(const_iterator q1, const_iterator q2) Effects: Erases all the elements in the left-inclusive and right-exclusive range [q1,q2). Returns q2. Complexity: Amortized O(N) where N has the value distance(q1, q2). void clear() Effects: erase(begin(), end()) Post-Condition: empty() returns true Complexity: linear in size(). iterator find(key_type const" k); Effects: Returns an iterator pointing to an element with the key equivalent to k, or end() if such an element is not found. Complexity: logarithmic size_type count(key_type constquot;& k) Effects: Returns the number of elements with key equivalent to k Complexity: log(size of map) + number of elements with key equivalent to k iterator lower_bound(key_type const" k) Effects: Returns an iterator pointing to the first element with key not less than k, or end() if such an element is not found. Complexity: logarithmic iterator upper_bound(key_type const" k) Effects: Returns an iterator pointing to the first element with key greater than k, or end() if such an element is not found. Complexity: logarithmic 23.4.1 Class template map §1 A map is an associative container that supports unique keys (contains at most one of each key value) and provides for fast retrieval of values of another type T based on the keys. The map class supports bidirectional iterators. 23.4.1.2 map element access T" operator[](const key_type" x); Effects: If there is no key equivalent to x in the map, inserts value_type(x, T()) into the map. Returns: A reference to the mapped_type corresponding to x in *this. Complexity: logarithmic. T" at(const key_type" x); const T" at(const key_type" x) const; Returns: A reference to the element whose key is equivalent to x. Throws: An exception object of type out_of_range if no such element is present. Complexity: logarithmic. `