What was the first published appearance of the Holy Avenger (or Holy Sword, or similar “holy” weapons meant for paladins) in the Forgotten Realms?

Anyone who has ever played D&D surely knows of the holy avenger, the mighty magical sword whose true power manifests only in the hands of a paladin. Where did the notion of the paladin wielding a special sacred weapon first cross into official material for the Forgotten Realms?

In case it helps, I trace the holy avenger back to early editions of D&D where it was presented as but one token of a broader type: the holy sword. The first printed appearance of the holy sword I can find is in AD&D 1e’s Supplement 1: Greyhawk, which presented the holy sword as if it were a class feature part-and-parcel of the paladin:

Paladins with any form of “Holy Sword” are virtually immune to all magic (see MONSTERS & TREASURE, MAGIC & TREASURE, Swords).

(See p. 8.) Two kinds of holy sword were offered there, namely the holy sword +5 and the sword of sharpness. (See pp. 46-47.) In AD&D 1e, the DMG likewise described the holy avenger (technically named “Sword, +5, Holy Avenger”) as “a holy sword.” (See p. 165.) And the 1e PHB again treated the holy sword like a class feature, though without actually describing the properties of the weapon itself:

If a paladin has a “Holy Sword” (a special Magic Sword which your referee is aware of and will explain to you if the need arises), he or she projects a circle of power 1″ in diameter when the Holy Sword is unsheathed and held; and this power dispels magic . . . at the level of magic use equal to the experience level of the paladin.

(p. 22; emphasis mine.) In 2e, the PHB (see pp. 27-28) did essentially the same. At least two 2e volumes specific to the Realms go on to mention holy avengers (though not holy swords):

  • Faiths & Avatars mentions holy avengers in reference both to characters with the Crusader kit (p. 184), and to the weapon carried by the avatar of Torm: “Duty’s Bond, a massive two-handed holy avenger +5 with all the powers of a sun blade as well” (p. 163).

  • Warriors and Priests of the Realms mentions the holy avenger, but curiously only in reference to evil Crusader characters. (See p. 64.)

Both Faiths & Avatars and Warriors and Priests of the Realms show publication dates in 1996.

However, given that Faiths & Avatars couches its write-up of Torm in terms of his activity during the Time of Troubles, it is conceivable that an earlier-published Realms novel might have portrayed Torm in his mortal life as a paladin wielding Duty’s Bond or some like weapon.

Are these the earliest-published references to holy avengers (or holy swords) in the Realms? Or is there an earlier origin, perhaps in 1e rulebooks or an early novel?

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In this article, I want to tell you how you can start a simple Node.js HTTP server and begin processing requests.

The HTTP module for your Node.js server
When you start creating HTTP-based applications in Node.js, the built-in HTTP/HTTPS modules are the ones you will interact with.

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// content of index.js const http = require(‘http’)…

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First time booting up and other log ins look different

I have installed Ubuntu 19.04 (with Gnome) on my MSI GL62-7QF. By using Gnome Tweaks I managed to install Pop!_OS shell theme, while using the desktop everything works as intended, once I log out the Log In screen looks like Ubuntu’s default. I will show some photos to better explain.

Here is how it looks when I boot up and should look like: POP!_OS shell theme log in

And here is how it looks after I log out: Ubuntu shell theme log in

why does the pumping lemma want us to only consider the first repitition of states?

In Sipser’s Intro to Theory and computation, He writes: enter image description here

I don’t understand the constraint on x. Shouldn’t it be just y <=p? (Equal bc in the case when machine M runs through all states p) Making xy <=p, the theorem only wants us to consider the first p elements and the first repetiton. Why can’t any repetition be considered for the pumping lemma? We can simply pick an arbitrary substring of length p and the looping structure works just fine? Is this constraint on x just to generalize since some inputs may not have more than one looping structure?