Maximum (s,t) flow in a simple graph – BIG O

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Given a simple graph (at most one edge between u-v), with no loops or parallel edges, I have to prove that max (s,t) flow is at most O(v^2 / d^2).

I understand that this is asking to prove max flow <= C* (V^2/d^2) for some positivie c. I asked my TA (teacher assistant) and he said that we’d need to prove this by contradiction

MY PROOF

Assume for a contradiction, there’s more than one edge between some vertices x and y. The shortest path is distance ‘d’. I’m stuck after this. In other words, I need to show that the minimum cut cannot be > v^2 / d^2

Uses of irreducible control flow

What are some applications where irreducible control flow is required*?

I’m particularly interested in programming language features that will be tricky to efficiently compile if the compile target does not permit irreducible control flow. For example, a programming language offering GOTO will generate irreducible control flow for some programs. What other language constructs are like this? For example, is irreducible control flow required to implement resumable exceptions?

I’m also interested in application-level uses of irreducible control flow.

(*: irreducible control flow graphs (CFGs) can be converted to reducible CFGs at some cost, and also some compiler optimizations can convert reducible CFGs to irreducible CFGs, so what I mean is that the original, unoptimized CFG produced by the source code is irreducible. Less formally, I mean that the "programmer’s intent" naturally includes irreducible control flow)

Intuition behind Max Flow Algorithm

Given :

  1. A flow network G whose edges have capacity of 1
  2. G’s maximum flow |F|
  3. A positive integer K

Delete exactly K edges so that the flow of the network is minimized.

So I was asked to develop an algorithm for this but that’s not the issue.I would like to know if my thoughts are in the right direction because the Max Flow – Min Cut Theorem is new to me.

My thoughts :

  1. If K is greater than or equal to |F| delete ALL of the edges that cross G’s Minimum cut and if K is still greater than zero delete random edges and the new max flow is zero

  2. If K is equal to |F| delete ALL of the edges that cross G’s Minimum cut and the new max flow is zero

  3. If K is less than |F| delete K of the edges that cross G’s Minimum cut and the new max flow is |F|-K

Lastly the way that I understand the Max Flow/Min Cut Theorem is that the Min (Source,Sink) cut works as a "bottleneck" to the maximum flow we can push in the network,right?

more than one min cut in a net flow

I know the answer to the question, but I still can’t understand. I have the max flow and I need to determine whether there is more than one min-cut. I know that I need to run BFS from s in the residual network, and from t in the residual net work (after changing each (u,v) to (v,u)). What I can’t understand: why would I get different results? Every example I am trying shows me the same: Any vertex reachable from s (not include s) is a vertex that is reachable from t. Am I wrong? and if I’m wrong, what is the reason some other case can happen?

Checking if two statements can be reached in one control flow

Assume I have a graph representing the control flow and the call graph of a given program. I also have a first and a second statement. I now want to figure out if it is possible to execute both statements (in order) within the same program execution.

Control Flow Graph: I have a graph with all the statements of the program and edges connecting the statements determining the control flow of the program intra function (i.e., within a function).

Call Graph: I also have edges connecting any function call with the start of the function control flow of the called function.

The literature I found concerning control flow covers only intra function flow analysis and the only correct approach I can come up with is a depth first (or breadth first) search starting from the first statement. This, however, hardly feels correct as it is quite cumbersome and I would expect a better solution.

Why doesn’t OIDC hybrid flow require nonce

The OIDC standard requires the nonce parameter in the authentication request when using the implicit flow:

nonce REQUIRED. String value used to associate a Client session with an ID Token, and to mitigate replay attacks.

However in the hybrid flow the nonce is not required. Yet the id_token is directly returned in the response and also susceptible to injection or replay.

Why is the nonce parameter not required in hybrid flow. What secures hybrid flow from injection or replay of id_token?


Why does DFS in Dinic’s Algorithm finds a blocking flow

I came upon this implementation of the dfs in Dinic’s algorithm written in Python

def dfs(c, f, current, capacity):   tmp = capacity # What's the purpose of that?    # we want to get to the sink, but we want it to be a blocking flow path   if current == NROW - 1:     return capacity    for i in range(NROW):     is_next = levels[i] == levels[current] + 1     residual_capacity = c[current][i] - f[current][i]     has_more_capacity = residual_capacity > 0     if is_next and has_more_capacity:       min_capacity_so_far = min(tmp, residual_capacity)       flow = dfs(c, f, i, min_capacity_so_far)       f[current][i] += flow       f[i][current] -= flow       tmp -= flow # Why do we do that   return capacity - tmp # Why do we return capacity - tmp 

How do we know that this dfs finds a blocking path? Also, I can’t seem to understand the usage of the temp variable.

Thanks in advance!