Can Forest Gnomes secretly converse (like Thieves Cant) with other Forest Gnomes/Firbolg/Speak with Animal Users via Speak with Small Beasts?

My party has two Forest Gnomes and a Firbolg and they want to use their racial features to secretly communicate.

Forest Gnomes have

Speak with Small Beasts: Through sound and gestures, you may communicate simple ideas with Small or smaller beasts.

Firbolg’s have:

Speech of Beast and Leaf: You have the ability to communicate in a limited manner with beasts and plants. They can understand the meaning of your words, though you have no special ability to understand them in return. You have advantage on all Charisma checks made to influence them.

Speak with Animals reads:

You gain the ability to comprehend and verbally communicate with beasts for the duration. The knowledge and awareness of many beasts is limited by their intelligence, but at minimum, beasts can give you information about nearby locations and monsters, including whatever they can perceive or have perceived within the past day. You might be able to persuade a beast to perform a small favor for you, at the GM’s discretion.

  1. Through their shared knowledge of Speak with Small Beasts can Forest Gnomes communicate simple ideas to each other?
  2. Can Forest Gnomes understand a Firbolg speaking to them as it would a small animal even though it could not respond in turn.
  3. Would a Speak With Animals user be able to eavesdrop on either?

Is this Forest Gnome Warlock character build legal?

I’m playing a DnD-5e campaign with some co-workers; it’s my first role-playing in, oh, decades and something like my 4th character ever. I know when to ask for help. Help!

I’m instructed to create a 4th-level character to join an existing party, and I had in mind to create a very, very old female Forest Gnome Warlock; something akin to a wizened medicine woman. I’m using the PHB as a reference, as well as roll20 and other online resources.

I feel this character is quite powerful for its level, so please tell me all the mistakes I did in interpreting the build rules.


Looking at cantrips, a forest gnome gets two right out of the gate; Minor Illusion and Speak with Small Beasts (which refers to Beast Speech, which refers to Speak with Animals — if accurate, I’m still going to limit it to tiny creatures). As for the warlock, at 4th level she’d have 3 cantrip slots; adding Pact of the Tome is said to yield three additional cantrip slots. The total comes to 2+3+3 = 8 cantrips for a 4th-level forest gnome warlock. Really?

Looking at spells, at 4th level a warlock would have two 2nd-level spell slots and five slots for “known spells” (which, I gather, can only be swapped out when you gain a level).

Looking at invocations, at 4th level a warlock would have two invocation slots. I’m not quite sure about the difference between invocations and cantrips; for my character I have chosen Agonizing Blast (which functions as a permanent booster for a separate cantrip) and Mask of Many Faces (which, it seems, might as well be a cantrip?).

Then, stats. My base stats are:

STR: 8 DEX: 10 CON: 12 INT: 14 WIS: 13 CHA: 15 

but then I can add:

  • +1 DEX from Forest Gnome race,
  • +2 INT from Gnome race,
  • +2 from Warlock Level 4, which I have split between CON and CHA,

so my final stat block becomes:

STR: 8 DEX: 10+1 = 11 CON: 12+1 = 13 INT: 14+2 = 16 WIS: 13 CHA: 15+1 = 16 

and for Hit Points that should give me 8 (base) +2 (CON modifier) + 3×5 (fixed increase from each level above 1st) = 25 HP.

Does this all seem reasonable, or am I way off base here? I really don’t intend to be a munchkin; I had this person in mind before I looked into its construction.


That is the core of my question. For additional information, here are the spells I thought I could be choosing:

  • Cantrips:
    • Blade Ward
    • Eldritch Blast (with Agonizing Blast)
    • Mage Hand
    • Minor Illusion (comes with Forest Gnome)
    • Speak with Small Animals (comes with Forest Gnome)
    • Message (free with Tome)
    • Cure Wounds (free with Tome)
    • Spare the Dying (free with Tome)
  • Spells:
    • Hellish Rebuke (as 2nd level, would gain an additional 1d10)
    • Misty Step
  • Spells known:
    • Eldritch Blast
    • Hellish Rebuke
    • Unseen Servant
    • Misty Step
    • Spider Climb
  • Invocations:
    • Agonizing Blast
    • Mask of Many Faces

I extend to you most humble and sincere thanks.

Need help to make and optimize a dense forest in Unity with bird view camera

I’m currently developing a RTS game that has a bird view camera operating while playing the game. One of the core aspects of my game are trees.

So in the previous days i was playing with trees in Unity.

  • First i played with Unity Tree Creator however later i realized it is broken since 2018.3, and devs said it wont be fixed because it will be a community developed package in the future
  • Then i downloaded assets from the store that are said to be highly optimized trees, however they are mostly for “3rd person camera projects” thus having around 7-14k triangles.

After these experiences, i decided to export a tree prefab to fbx, then manually decrease the triangle count to around 2.5k in 3ds max, then reimport it to Unity. With this technique i was able to produce quite good results, but still not very satisfied with it.

My camera view, and my “dense forest” 180-300fps… and only like 3-4 shadows enter image description here For the above picture i used a Tree with 2 LOD and one billboard(BB).

After playing with this i realized i can sure do better especially with playing LOD numbers, material optimization, and with the default tree trinagle optimization.

However the problem is i can’t model pine trees that satisfy my needs in 3ds max. So i started looking into SpeedTree documentation, however it seems a bit too professional for my needs(All the tutorials also make trees with like 20k poly/tri).

So regarding this story. I would like to ask the following question + a bonus one about LOD:

  • Can you model quality trees with SpeedTree for Unity that have like around 1k-2k triangles, or SpeedTree is for high quality/high poly trees, they algorythms won’t work with lower polygon count etc? (I heared they have a simplify modifier is it good? like make a 7k triangle tree then cut it to 1k-2k)
  • I’m thinking about using 4-5 LOD and a BB for smooth transition. In my picture i use 2 LOD and a BB and sometimes when moving the camera fast, transitions are not as smooth as i want it to be. So i would like to rather have more lower detailed meshes before trasitioning to BB. So does having a 4-5 LOD-s a common practice or any better ides for this?

When to use random forest

I understand Random Forest models can be used both for classification and regression situations. Is there a more specific criteria to determine where a random forest model would perform better than common regressions (Linear, Lasso, etc) to estimate values or Logistic Regression for classification?

How to find size of each tree in a forest?

I have a tree of n nodes. If I remove k edges of this tree, I will have k+1 new trees i.e. a forest of k+1 trees. How do I calculate the number of nodes in each of these new trees formed?

I need to do this for q queries.

My approach: I can remove the k edges from the original tree and run dfs on each nodes from which edge was deleted and find the size of the new tree. And then join the nodes back after getting size of each tree. But this is not optimal, can anyone suggest a better approach.

Sorting vertices by MST in a forest of MSTs

Consider a number of vertices. They are separated into a number of MSTs (so there’s a forest of MSTs) using Kruskal’s algorithm. For each vertex I need to know in which MST they are located. Each MST will be assigned a unique ID.

When completed I will know, for example, that Vertex #12 is in MST #2.

This is my best attempt at this. As you can see the algorithm failed because it falsely tagged one MST as two separate MSTs (Blue Group 0 and Blue Group 1):

enter image description here

I’m looking for an algorithm that can do this. Thanks in advance. I’m a programmer not a mathematician.

Is it possible that AD forest have different versions of AD on different sites?

As I plan upcoming AD upgrade (from 2008R2 to 2019) I face another problem: we’re actually have AD Forest that consists of several sites, each of them on 2008R2 AD version. As we upgrade one site AD version from 2008R2 to 2019, other sites will remain on 2008R2 for quite site time until we’ll see 2019 scheme works well and no problem appears. And now I doubt if the whole forest be functional and no problem arise when one site be on 2019 and other sites on 2008R2 AD scheme versions.

So the question is: in practice (that is, in real life) will the forest still be functional and usable as one site (and, eventually, one by one all other sites, too) be upgraded, while remaining sites still be on lower AD version? In general, the forest needed to have cross-sites auth, so no sophisticated features are needed, but anyway I’d better ask before jumping into the water 🙂

How can I validate/estimate the accuracy of the OOB error in Random Forest?

I might not exactly be at the right place here, but I’ll give it a go. I am using RF to approximate results from a simulation tool that I use since the simulations are quite computationally intensive. I am trying to develop a procedure to optimize the location of the points in my predictor space in order to use as little points as possible for my training data and thus run as little simulations as possible. To do this I am relying on the OOB error estimate that coms with ranger (a C++ implementation of RF).

My problem is that I have no idea how big my data set needs to be for the OOB error estimate to be even remotely accurate. I guess that someone somewhere must have tried assess the significance/accuracy of the OOB error estimate, but I was unable to find it.

Does anyone know of some literature, blog article, pre-coded method that can help me achieve this goal?