Will using Convergent Future give you a critical success if the minimum number you need to hit is 20?

Convergent Future (p185 EGtW) States:

When you or a creature you can see within 60 feet of you makes an attack roll, an ability check, or a saving throw, you can use your reaction to ignore the die roll and decide whether the number rolled is the minimum needed to succeed…

If that number is a “20” does it meet the requirements of a critical success? (p194 PHB)

When creating a character above 1st level, can you give them the effects of spellcasting services?

Page 199 of the DMG explains how new characters can start with magic items, even those they choose to make themselves (with the assumption these items were created some time before the character became a PC)

But let’s say a non-spellcaster wants to give themselves an extra point to an ability score. If they have 27,500 gp, they could start with a Manual of Quickness of Action and either use it immediately or possibly say they’ve used it already and begin with an inherent +1 bonus to Dexterity.

That book costs 27,500 gp. Using the formula on page 129 of the PHB, however, it would only cost 26,530 gp to have a 17th-level wizard cast wish on them as a service. For an 8th-level character (or a higher-level character with lots of other gear), that’s the difference between getting the bonus, and not.

Can the character simply decide to begin with this effect present (or a different spell with a permanent duration, like enlarge person+permanency, since 9th-level wizards are easy to find in large cities) and 26,530 gp less, or since the DMG only describes starting with magic items, must they spend 27,500 gp for the magic item?

Making complex boolean circuits that give true as output only for a specific combination of boolean inputs

This is my first question on a stack exchange website so please bear with me. I am making challenges for a jeopardy style capture the flag event in my college and I had come across the minetest challenge in the hardware section of google CTF qualifier conducted last year. A clean and organized solution to this problem has been provided by liveoverflow.

I would like to design a simpler version of this problem for my college’s CTF event but I am unable to design a complex circuit that gives true output only for a specific combination of inputs. I know that a circuit with this functionality is not very difficult to implement and just needs to represent the following logic:

trueinput1 AND trueinput2 AND ... NOT falseinput1 AND NOT falseinput2 ...  

However I want it to be vast and complicated so that participants cannot decode its functionality just by doing a visual analysis. Is there any technique to complicate the boolean logic above and to design a corresponding circuit that looks ugly even for a small number of inputs(32/64).

What ways can you give a creature the capability to speak?

I am looking for ways in 5e to grant the capability of speech to a creature ideally permanently. To be specific, I am interested in granting an Artificers Steel Defender and creatures like it the ability to speak. For instance the Steel Defenders stat block states it “understands the languages you speak” implying that it only understands them and does not speak them. I am assuming the possibility of the creature being able to use and attune to items.

Below are some ideas I have had after some initial investigation but none seem sufficient and are limited or dubious rules wise:

Through Magic Items

-“You can speak and understand X” : Ex. Ring of Elemental command, Demon Armor, Efreeti Chain etc.

(Do these apply in our context of a creature with the stat block above? Specific v.s. generic which is which here?)

-Intelligence Boost: Ex. Headband of intellect

(Is boosting intelligence enough to give a creature like the Steel Defender the capability to speak?)

-Telepathy: Ex. Helm of Telepathy

(In general this isn’t truly spoken speech. Oftentimes these are only communication with two people are there items that grant many?)

Through Spells

-Awaken: limitation “Huge or smaller beast or plant”

-Varieties of Polymorph: limitation a transformation itself

-Telepathic spells: limitation is telepathy is not true speech

(in general these have the limitation of possibility of being dispelled and require a spell caster)

Older Editions

Also I know in previous editions 3.5e Pearl of Speech existed, but I am interested in RAW 5e.

If you know of other ways that minimize the limitations involved and require few rare items please share.

Why does THC Hydra and Medusa give false positives when used on TP-Link Netcam?

I am a university student who is doing a final year project on IoT device security within an isolated network.

One of the tests I carried out was brute forcing, I already knew what the username and password was for a factory resetted IP Netcam but wanted to see how it would work in practice and if it even worked on IoT devices.

The commands I used for both tools is as follows:

Medusa -h “IP address” -u “default login” -P Desktop/rockyou.txt -n 80 -M http

Hydra -l “default login” -P Desktop/rockyou.txt -e ns -f -V “Ip address” http-get

Hydra did seem to work fine on other devices and would attempt to go through the entire list. But for this TP-Link Netcam it seemed that both tools would just go partially through the lists and sometimes give multiple false positives within the few attempts made.

While I do not have access to these devices anymore to continue testing, I would atleast like to know if it was something I entered wrong? Or if the device has something that could potentially stop this?

Any insight would be greatly appreciated, thank you for your time.

Does Absorb Elements give you resistance to damage from the triggering attack?

Absorb Elements says:

Absorb Elements
1st-level abjuration
Casting Time: 1 reaction, which you take when you take acid, cold, fire, lightning, or thunder damage
Range: Self
Components: S
Duration: 1 round

The spell captures some of the incoming energy, lessening its effect on you and storing it for your next melee attack. You have resistance to the triggering damage type until the start of your next turn. Also, the fist time you hit with a melee attack on your next turn, the target takes an extra 1d6 damage of the triggering type, and the spell ends.

This seems to imply that the caster avoids some of the incoming damage, but it isn’t stated as explicitly as similar abilities of other spells, such as the Shield spell which states (in part):

Until the start of your next turn, you have a +5 bonus to AC, including against the triggering attack

Are others reading the Absorb Elements spell as I am, as similarly granting the resistance beginning with the triggering attack?

Does Ring of Free Action give immunity to the Incapacitated Condition?

I am a DM who is planning to have the party finally face off against a criminal mastermind whose signature spell is Modify Memory. However, the party rogue is in posession of a Ring of Free Action. One of the effects of the Ring of Free Action is to make it impossible for magic to reduce your speed. The Modify Memory spell causes incapacitation in order to work, and one of the effects of incapacitation is the inability to move.

The question is, does the Ring of Free Action provide immunity to the Incapacitated condition if it was caused by magic?

Ring of Free Action: While you wear this ring, Difficult Terrain doesn’t cost you extra Movement. In addition, magic can neither reduce your speed nor cause you to be Paralyzed or Restrained.

Compare function to give a GArray when filled with GString – Glib [closed]

i have a GArray with GString. My compare function goes as follows:

int compareProdutos (gconstpointer a, gconstpointer b) {     char* cast_a_pointer =  ((GString*) a)->str;     char* cast_b_pointer = ((GString*) b)->str;      return strcmp(cast_a_pointer,cast_b_pointer); } 

but it isn’t sorting the array and is in fact, giving random results as the GArray ordering changes every time i run this code. If i understand correctly, i need to give the strcmp function the “String” part of the GString and that is achieved by Gstring->str, so i’m not understanding what i’m doing wrong.