Does armor proficiency from class also give the Ability Score increase from the proficiency feat?

Old school RPer coming back after long gaming hiatus and new to D&D 5e. Liking what I see, and happy to be rid of ThAC0, lol. I’m pretty sure I already know the answer to what I’m about to ask, but figure I’d ask anyways to make sure I didn’t miss something in the new system. Sorry if this is clearer to others or was addressed previously.

As I’m reading it seems feats are a little different now and fewer and further between when leveling, so I’m guessing they’re more valuable than they used to be. Going through the feats list I noticed that a lot of the feats also give an Ability Score increase and I have a question about those increases. (Example: Moderately Armored feat gives proficiency in medium armor and also increases STR or DEX by 1.)

IRC in the old system if you were proficient in an armor type you effectively had the armor feat for it. My question is, does a class in D&D 5e that starts with proficiency in medium armor have the Moderately Armored feat and get the Ability Score increase from above example? Or is the feat totally separate and they can just wear the armor but don’t get the Ability Score increase unless they take the feat?

Does +1 armor give resistance to damage?

Based on the answers from this question Is a +1 chain shirt strictly inferior to a breastplate? Does +1 armor give resistance to damage?

DMG pg. 141

Most magic items are objects of extraordinary craftsmanship. Thanks to a combination of careful crafting and magical reinforcement, a magic item is at least as durable as a nonmagical item of its kind. Most magic items, other than potions and scrolls, have resistance to all damage. Artifacts are practically indestructible, requiring extraordinary measures to destroy.

It doesn’t seem right that magic armor in general would give damage resistance when there is a specific type of armor that grants resistance to one damage type called Armor of Resistance (DMG pg. 152).

It seems like the quote on magic item resistance is for the item itself and not to the weilder or wearer of the item. Does magic armor grant resistance?

Does Telepathy give the ability to detect thoughts?

The Monster Manual 1 states in the Pseudodragon entry (Pg. 210):

Telepathy (Su): Pseudodragons can communicate telepathically with creatures that speak Common or Sylvan, provided they are within 60 feet.

It later in the the passage states (Pg. 211):

A pseudodragon may very rarely seek humanoid companionship. It stalks a candidate silently for days, reading his or her thoughts and judging his or her deeds.

No where in the entry does it say the pseudodragon has the ability to listen to thoughts. So does telepathy automatically give the ability to do this?

Can spent hit die give a character hit points beyond their maximum?

In D&D 5e can hit die spent during a short rest increase a character’s hit points beyond their maximum number of hit points, thus giving then temporary hit points?

Example: Jed the 2d level the Fighter was wounded, and is at 11 HP. His HP Max is 12 + 8 = 20. (Constitution of 14). The party takes a short rest. Jed rolls a 10 and adds his concentration bonus to get a 12 result. 11+12 = 23.
Would Jed now have (effectively) 23 HP (20 + 3 Temp HP)

Would declaring a sworn enemy using an oathbow give disadvantage when attacking with a spiritual weapon?

If a character declares a sworn enemy using an oathbow then the rules state:

While your Sworn Enemy lives, you have disadvantage on Attack rolls with all other Weapons.

What happens if you summon a magical weapon, like spiritual weapon, and try to attack with it while your sworn enemy still lives? Does it not count because it isn’t a “capital W” Weapon or do you get disadvantage on your attacks with it?

What creatures give bonuses to Medicine rolls/checks?

I am currently using a Druid in a campaign. I want to know what creatures, if any, there are that I can Polymorph or Wild Shape (5e Druid ability allowing druids to transform temporarily into Beast creatures) into that either give bonuses to Wisdom (Medicine) rolls/checks (like Medicine +3 for example) or that have advantage on Wisdom/ Wisdom (Medicine) rolls/check.

My character is a 6th level druid (Circle of the Land). I will soon have the Polymorph spell, but do not have True Polymorph or Shapechange

I will need to succeed on a DC 20 Wisdom (Medicine) check or one or my teammates will take quite a lot of Psychic damage when I attempt to remove the Control Gem of a Green Slaad. I want the best chance of rolling high enough.

Pathfinder 1-e, if a paladin uses their divine bond to give their weapon a special property, what means would players have of identifying it?

A paladin’s 5th level Spell like ability Divine bond allows them to give their divine bonded weapon a level based enhancement bonus or an equivalent special property picked from axiomatic, brilliant energy, defending, disruption, flaming, flaming burst, holy, keen, merciful, and speed. I’d like to know how a player character might identify the property picked when facing a paladin.

Normally, per this stackexchange, when identifying the properties of a magic item that isn’t a potion or a scroll, you esentially have to use a magic spell. Either detect magic, identify, or analyze-dweomer.

But divine bond is a spell like ability and a “spell-like ability works just like the spell of that name”. Spell effects in place can be identified with a DC20+spell level Knowledge arcana check. If a character class grants a spell-like ability that is not based on an actual spell, the ability‚Äôs effective spell level is equal to the highest-level class spell the character can cast, and is cast at the class level the ability is gained, which makes, I believe, this a DC between 21 and 24.

On top of that, a knowledge religion check of 10+ class level when the feature is granted can identify a class feature from a class that grants divine spells, which for a paladin would be a DC 15 knowledge religion check. Would this identify the choices the paladin has made, or just the options they have available to them?

Would a knowledge arcana check identify the bonus granted (and the level the spell was cast at) by the spell Magic Weapon, Greater, or just that it was cast? Would that sort of granularity apply to a clas feature/spell like ability?

Can Guidance give a bonus to activity that takes more than 1 minute?

Can the spell Guidance give a 1d4 bonus to an activity that takes more than 1 minute to complete?

For example, a character may have to find its way through a frozen wastelands. The activity may take several hours, and its success depend on a Wisdom(Survival) check.

Can the character cast Guidance to get a +1d4 to the check?

For completeness, the guidance spell has a duration of 1 minute and states:

You touch one willing creature. Once before the spell ends, the target can roll a d4 and add the number rolled to one ability check of its choice. It can roll the die before or after making the ability check. The spell then ends.

Can a spell storing ring give a whole party Greater steeds?

This came up in a game the other night, it seems broken but I can’t find anything that says it’s not allowed…

A party member has “Find Greater steed” and casts it into a spell storing ring. Another party member then attunes, casts from the ring, and has their own Pegasus.

Repeat for the whole party and now they all have their own Pegasus to ride, until they dismiss it/it dies.

Obviously this assumes they have time to repeatedly re-attune and regain spell slots, but still seems a little OP. Have I missed something?!