I want give Helmets AC in DnD 5e, would this work?

Basically I was thinking about giving helmets a +1 AC to players. Now I know its’ basically allowing players to get plus 1 AC for like 10-20 gp so here are some draw backs that I think would make the player really think twice. A guaranteed one is basically anyone who wears one gains a point of exhaustion for every 3 hours of continued use without taking it off for at least a few minutes. This doesn’t apply when the character is sleeping during short or long rests.

1: -3 to -5 on Perception rolls of any kind. (can be modified for type of helmet)

2: -3 to investigation of any kind

3: and finally, very susceptible to flanking maneuvers in combat

I was thinking of applying 1 or 2 appropriately to the type of helmet they wear. Only way all 3 would apply is if I decide the helmet gives +2.

Main reason is because my players like to look cool wearing the helmets but wanted some function to them as well. Is this a viable option?

Do attacks that give the Grappled condition work against creatures more than 1 size larger?

Many creatures, such as the Giant Frog, have attacks that grapple on a hit:

Bite. Melee Weapon Attack: […] Hit: (1d6 + 1) piercing damage. The target is grappled (escape DC 11).

Does this grapple work against a creature Huge or larger? Usual Grapples don’t work if the target is more than one size larger than the grappler.

The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you and must be within your reach.

How can one tell if a binary is safe to give sudo permissions for to an untrusted user?

sudo is sometimes used to give untrusted or “semi-trusted” users the ability to perform certain tasks as root, while not giving them unlimited root access. This is usually done via an entry into /etc/sudoers, specifying which programs can be executed.

However, some programs may provide more (no pun intended) functionality than expected, such as more, less, man or find, which offer to execute other programs – most notably a shell.

Usually, which programs are safe to execute depends on knowledge of the sysadmin. Certain binaries like echo or cat are most likely safe (i.e. don’t allow the user to spawn a shell), while others like the examples above are known to be exploitable.

Is there a way to assess with reasonable confidence whether or not an executable is “safe” when given sudo permissions for? Or is the only way a comprehensive source-code audit?

In response to cat not being safe: Yes, it can be used to read sensitive files as root. In some setups, this may be the intended use-case (e.g. a limited user being able to read as root, but not write).

Furthermore, comments or answers explaining to me that sudo is not the correct way to grant read permissions like this: I know. I am absolutely aware how a file-system should be structured, but due to the nature of my work, I can’t influence how file-systems are structured on those servers. All I can do is to see which recommendation fixes the immediate problem. So please, don’t challenge the frame of the question. I don’t have an XY-problem.

Dynamic programming algorithm with an O(n) performance that will give the optimal solution

I am currently learning the dynamic substructure and optimal solution for the coin change-making, and one of the questions given from my teacher is to describe an overall O(n) dynamic programming algorithm that will give the optimal solution and why is it O(n)? Can anyone help me to understand the question? Thank you!

Would Using Thaumaturgy Give Advantage to Intimidation?

Basically just what the question sates.

Let’s say I used thaumaturgy to create a booming voice, make the ground tremor, and start a rumble of thunder while suggesting someone to do something in an attempt to intimidate them. Would that impose an advantage on the intimidation? Maybe not so much rolling twice, but a bonus of sorts?

This is also assuming they are not creatures that understand magic to the point where they know what’s happening.

How does “Flexible Casting” give more spell slots?

The Player’s Handbook (p. 101) states (about flexible casting):

Creating spell slots. You can transform unexpended sorcery points into one spell slot as a bonus action on your turn.

I’m unsure how to interpret this in practice. Does this mean that you can gain more spell slots than you would normally have available after a long rest, or would you only be able to regain expended spell slots up to your normal maximum? And if the former, would the excess spell slots be lost on a long rest or not?