Who goes to the Nine Hells?

The Nine Hells (or Baator) is the Lawful Evil outer plane, and the home plane of devils. It is a plane of eternal punishment for the wicked.

Which souls go there in the afterlife?

I can think that the answer may or may not include some/all of the following:

  • Mortals who have made devilish deals to give up their soul
  • Lawful Evil mortals who have made no devilish deal
  • Evil (but not Lawful) mortals who have made no devilish deal

I’m looking for what the answer is in 5e – but if there isn’t sufficient detail in that edition materials from earlier editions which are not directly contradicted in 5e would provide good basis for an answer.

If you cast a spell with a focus component and a long duration, does it end if the focus component goes missing?

I can’t seem to find a good example outside of 3rd party materials right now and pending GM or Dev input I figured I’d ask here. The example I’m specifically looking at is a spell with a 24 hour duration that uses a focus component that is an armlet worth at least 25g. If that armlet were removed for some reason (stolen, confiscated, handed to someone else, etc) would the spell duration end at that point or is the focus component only needed for the initial casting? If it were a Concentration spell I could see it needing to stick around, but IDK otherwise. Anyone have any official rulings on this?

Confusion with “every path from a given node to any of the leaves goes through the same number of black nodes” property of RB trees

One of the properties of Red Black trees is: “every path from a given node/vertex to any of the leaves goes through the same number of black nodes”

Two related questions about this property:

1) is the vertex we start at counted in this black vertex count?

2) is the leaf we end at counted in the black vertex count?

I have a secret theory about both of these questions, but am hoping for confirmation and so shalt not yet reveal it.

Why can I not adjust the point color? It just goes black

Here is my code here.

Please help me correct this.

How to make these 2 points Blue and Orange respectively?

Manipulate[  pp = ParametricPlot[{{r1 Cos[Min[w1 x, 2 Pi]],       r1 Sin[Min[w1 x, 2 Pi]]},     {r1 Cos[w1 x] + r2 Cos[w2 x], r1 Sin[w1 x] + r2 Sin[w2 x]}},    {x, 0, t}, PlotRange -> 10 {{-1, 1}, {-1, 1}},     AxesLabel -> {"Time"},    PlotStyle -> {Automatic, Red}, BaseStyle -> Thick];  Legended[   Show[pp, Epilog -> {Black, AbsolutePointSize[5],       Point@Graphics`Mesh`FindIntersections[pp[[1]]],      PointSize[Large], {Blue, Orange},       Point[{{r1 Cos[w1 t],          r1 Sin[w1 t]}, {r1 Cos[w1 t] + r2 Cos[w2 t],          r1 Sin[w1 t] + r2 Sin[w2 t]}}]}],   LineLegend[{ColorData[97]@1, Red, Blue, Orange},    {"Earth Trajectory", "Moon Trajectory", "Earth", "Moon"},    Joined -> {True, True, False, False},     LegendMarkers -> {None, None, "Point", "Point"}]],  {pp, None},  {{t, 1, "Time"}, 0.01, 10 Pi, 0.01},  {{w1, 1, "Angular Velocity"}, 0.2, 5, 0.01},  {{r1, 2, "Radius"}, 0.2, 10, 0.01},  {{w2, 1, "Moon Angular Velocity"}, 0.2, 5, 0.01},  {{r2, 2, " Moon Radius"}, 0.2, 10, 0.01},  TrackedSymbols :> {t, w1, r1, w2, r2}] 

enter image description here

Does Spiritual Weapon stay until the end of its duration if the caster goes uncounscious?

Spiritual Weapon does not require concentration and only has a duration of a minute. When my cleric was knocked unconscious the on-the-fly decision was to keep the weapon waiting around until the end of the spell and I was able to use it again after getting back on my feet. We were wondering however if there was any overall guidance for summons – should they stay until the end of their duration even if the caster goes unconscious?

What goes into proving two complicated programs are equivalent?

Say I wanted to prove that two programs were equivalent (either rigorously if possible, or informally if not). More specifically, say I have something relatively complex such as an HTTP server implemented in C, and one implemented in Node.js/JavaScript. What can I do in terms of saying “these two are effectively the same”? What are my options? What is possible? What is not possible?

It’s been a little while since I’ve looked into proving program equivalence (I’m currently linked to this, but I can’t read it yet haha, and it looks like it’s focusing on extremely simple programs like equality checks or basic loops, whereas I’m asking about a robust HTTP server).

Essentially (I’m imagining) I want to say “these two programs in JS and C do the same thing”. That “do the same thing” is obviously vague, but at the same time it means something specific. Any observable outcome on either system is generally the same, give or take. So it’s like a proof, but without being a perfect proof. It’s like it’s a partial proof or something.

I would like to be able to say of my programs “these two implementations are equivalent for all intents and purposes”. I would probably start by providing measurable guarantees or observations about performance and input/output behavior, and then write some tests, and … I don’t quite remember, somehow make statements about the system. Or should I just be thinking that “a functioning HTTP server in either language is an AXIOM“. That would simplify it 🙂 Just assume it does the same thing as one another. But that’s sidestepping it feels like.

Wondering what are my options here? How far can I take this in theory? I am not concerned with how long this would take to implement or define, if it takes years, fine. I just would like to know what is possible in terms of making the statement “these two programs in C and JS are equivalent” more rigorous and nailed down. What techniques/theories/research-directions could I look into to make it possible?

Right now I am just assuming they are equal implicitly, allowing my code to call either the C function or the JS function knowing that the ~overall effect~ is the same (nebulous, I know, don’t know how to pin it down). I would like to apply some math or model checking or program simulation or something to this so that I can make it more solid, if possible 🙂

At the other end of the spectrum is proving that 3 > 2 is equivalent in both C and JS. What am I even supposed to do in this simple case? Making that slightly more complex on it’s way to a full HTTP server, copying a string in C is very different than in JavaScript, but it’s a relatively simple thing. Where do I even begin to prove those “operations” equivalent between the two languages? Or if not “prove”, then just “state” that they are equivalent, with some backup evidence or something, I dunno.

Here is not much, but this diagram is what I’m basically trying to do:

enter image description here

At a broader level, the problem seems to be similar to this…. Say I want to get a medallion. I can either go the store and buy one, or I can 3D print one. Both “algorithms” (going to the store, or 3D printing) are way different from each other, but they are effectively the same. There would be no straightforward way to step-wise prove these are equivalent operationally (from what my imagination provides), but visibly the end result is the same. How would you (even here) state this with rigor?

Network manager goes bad after hot unplugging an external usb wifi adapter

While my Lubuntu 18.04 is connected to a wifi network via an external wifi adapter, I hot unplug the external wifi adapter.

Symptoms of the problem:

  1. When I plug the external wifi adapter back to my computer, no wifi network is detected, even though both networking and wifi are enbaled.
  2. The top process shown in the output of top is:

     PID USER      PR  NI    VIRT    RES    SHR S  %CPU %MEM     TIME+ COMMAND  1068 root      20   0 1029552   8060   4864 R  85.7  0.1  29:25.70 NetworkManager 

    Trying to kill it by sudo kill 1068 or sudo service NetworkManager restart/stop or sudo systemctl restart/stop NetworkManager will result in hanging forever

    Trying to run any sudo command e.g. sudo pm-suspend will result in the same forever hanging

  3. The usb port on my laptop where the external wifi adapter was originally plugged in has also stop working for other external devices, unless I reboot my Lubuntu.

How can I solve the problem? Preferably not rebooting my Lubuntu.

How can I avoid the problem in the future? Is NetworkManager the culprit? Will some alternative be better and which ones?



This is part of /var/log/syslog around the time when the problem happened. (I unplugged a keyword to free up a usb port for a flash drive, and then unplugged the external wifi adapter, to free up a usb port for a printer, and then plugged it back. )