A Guide on Electrical Muscle Stimulation

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has always been a little confusing to performance coaches and sports medicine professionals because the research is cloudy at best. Many of the reasons behind the limitations of science are the ethical boundaries you need to navigate, and the expectations you have with the results of those studies. I recently spent more time working with EMS, as more and more athletes are using EMS devices on their own and we are dealing with the hangover of injuries still lingering in the off-season. What I have learned is that the science is not perfect and there are no best practices.

There has been a resurgence in EMS in sport over the last five years because of Bill Knowles, Derek Hansen, and Henk Kraaijenhof sharing their experiences with athletes. I believe that EMS suit inluding electrostimulation vest has a place in sports performance and the rehabilitation of athletes, but we don’t have a solid explanation of why some athletes don’t respond to it while others seem to come alive from it. In this first piece, I will review some of the current literature on EMS and present a healthy perspective on this modality. (Part 2 will be published as “The Top 6 EMS Protocols for Sports Performance.”)

A Brief History of Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Modern Sport
Without getting into any unnecessary background on electrotherapy (such as a retelling of the way the ancient civilizations used electric fish or citing references to Volta and Galvani), it’s valuable to know how e-stim or EMS has been part of sport in the last few decades. Outside of product design, very little innovation has occurred since the 1950s, making EMS more of an art than a science. Coaches and therapists are sometimes frustrated because transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, or TENS for short, gets confused with sports electrostimulation.

To understand the difference between TENS and EMS, you need to know just a little bit about engineering and biology. TENS targets the sensory nerves, while EMS attacks the motor nerve and attempts to recruit as many muscle fibers as possible. TENS is currently used—mainly in vain, in my opinion—to manage pain. In 1965, Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall proposed the “gate control theory” of pain. What we know about the pain experience is extremely complex and personal, making the TENS intervention for sport very dated and extremely limited for athletes. Some research has shown positive findings, but the modality method of working with athletes in pain is lazy and proven unproductive in clinical research.

EMS focuses mainly on sending current to muscle groups in the hope of eliciting either a recovery response or a performance response later. Based on the current literature, recovery indices appear very limited, and performance benefits have shown up enough with some populations—including athletes—to be accepted as valid complementary treatments. The truth is that our understanding of electrostimulation is usually confined to a few studies on stroke victims and post-surgical wasting, and nothing I have seen has excited me.

What interests me, instead, are the clinicians who have used EMS creatively. Some of the studies on cellular and performance outcomes are strong enough to show that EMS isn’t just a placebo. I have used the Compex systems for nearly 20 years, and have some experience with the Marc Pro, PowerDot, Globus, and ARPwave. If I had to conclude which I think works best, it will be a short answer: All of them work, so choose one based on your needs and not its features.

If you were to go to a medical bookstore and check the physical therapy section on EMS, you would see that it tends to be a set of protocols based on pad placement, current settings, and scheduling sessions. This approach is nowhere near the same as what the modern clinician does and, since we are now entering the bionic athlete era with gait retraining, this only widens the gap between practice and research. It’s easy to shout that you’re ahead of the research, but without evidence, much of what clinicians do becomes like the dated RICE protocol that we still see people clinging to.

A Rapid Review of Electricity for Coaches and Therapists
Electric current can flow in different ways, such as through a wire, or something lesser known, such as a plasma state. The current generated from a muscle electrostimulator uses a conductive pad to transfer through the skin, causing the muscle to contract. The specifics of the muscle contraction will come later, but the important information is that electricity from medical muscle stimulators is more complicated than voltage and ampere. Electricity is not just about whether something is “on” or “off,” and we often take much of the technology we use for granted, especially the safety of the muscle stimulators. Most companies that get involved with e-stim devices are regulated, but it’s up to the consumer to do their homework on the quality of the product.

Experienced coaches and therapists commonly refer to stimulation parameters and share their practices, including the use of different types of settings, such as Russian Stimulation or strength protocols. Stimulation parameters and waveforms can be the subject of their own article but, for the most part, duty cycle, frequency, intensity, and ramp details are part of electrotherapy theory, but are not very well-documented. Regardless of the intimate details, many parallels exist between classic training principles and the current clinical practices of EMS use. Cycles, or waves of energy, are part of a “unified training theory” proposed by several coaches and sport scientists. EMS should be used to improve athletes, similarly to loading the body with training or rehabilitation.

Companies must do their job, not only to prove their machines are delivering exactly what they promise, but also to ensure that their products are used as intended. Most companies have terrible product education, and visiting their YouTube channels makes me cringe more than their highest simulator settings.

The Science of Electrical Contractions With Muscle
Sending electricity through a muscle group sounds like a bad science fiction movie, but that’s precisely what athletes are willing to do to get or feel better. It’s a priority to know what EMS can do physiologically and what is likely ineffective. Five years ago, pioneering researcher Nicola Maffiuletti summarized the differences between a normal muscular contraction and one from electrical stimulation in his NSCA journal article. The two types of contractions have similarities and differences that a coach should know. Overall, EMS is not going to make a major difference. However, like all things in sports training, the little things matter.

One development that throws this concept out the window is the rise in functional electrical muscle stimulation, equipped with electrostimulation shorts, which incorporates active training with the simultaneous overlay of EMS. While we can assume that the merging of both contractions will yield a hybrid result, most of the research is with disease models and only clinical rehabilitation has shown merit with this in early post-operation subjects. I have yet to see a single study with elite athletes performing EMS in conjunction with conventional training, but the case reports and work with spinal cord injury patients is promising.

Finally, EMS is used to help with neuromuscular adaptations and, while sessions may prevent atrophy, the improvements are from neural drive-like mechanisms, not from increased protein synthesis rates. EMS doesn’t directly create hypertrophy changes to the muscle, and a study on nutrition and e-stim showed no acute changes.

What is also important to know is that electrically stimulated muscles are, for the most part, superficial, and that is useful for propulsive muscle groups. Some rogue therapists are using fine needle EMS with low current for deeper muscle penetration for rehabilitation purposes. Most EMS experiences are one muscle at a time, but some athletes are getting simultaneous total body sessions. Nobody knows if total bodywork is more time-efficient or if a possible synergistic benefit exists, but down the road, studies will likely discover if there is a value beyond convenience.

The Scientific Benefits of Stimulating the Neuromuscular System
If you were to read a catalog of features and settings for a personal e-stim device, the list would be very long, ranging from relaxation massage all the way to explosive strength. While, technically, different settings will have unique stimulation protocols from the device programming in the electrostimulation center, the reality is that only three purposes exist with EMS and the research is enough to form a realistic expectation. The three EMS benefits are strength training, rehabilitation, and a little regeneration. Distilling the benefits more, you can make an argument that EMS helps with general muscle strength and facilitates low-level recovery for travel. That’s about it, but it’s enough to warrant investing in it, especially when sport moves into the unfortunate health compromise for winning.

Sports Performance

EMS and strength, and the results that may lead to jump and sprint performance, are mixed in the research. However, enough research shows that if EMS is done with specific protocols, a positive result is possible, especially with the less-trained athlete. So far, much of the work has been done with soccer, and some recent investigations of youth jumping performance and plyometrics had favorable outcomes.

The Ultimate Guide to Waterproof Dry Bags

The Ultimate Guide to Waterproof Dry Bags
Dry bags are a must-have piece of gear for any outdoor adventurer. While they are simple, easy to use, you’ll find there are many different styles, sizes, materials, and features that go into them. I hope to guide you through the decision-making process with this ultimate guide to waterproof dry bags. Let’s get started!
If you’re just looking for our best dry bag recommendation, check out Gold Coast gear for all sizes and colors.
What’s a Waterproof Dry Bag?
As the name implies, their primary job is to keep any piece of outdoor gear dry. The bag is a flexible container, typically with a roll-top closure. Roll-top Dry Bags provide a Watertight enclosure by the way they are secured. Instead of a Zip-top or zipper type of closing mechanism, the bag is secured by rolling down or dog-earing the top at least three times, them clipping the buckles together.
We will go over other ways of securing a dry bag, but the most reliable ones are closed with a roll-top seal. The reason Mountaineers prefer this over a zipper and zip-top closing style is that a rolling top is virtually indestructible.
Two pieces of fabric being pressed together won’t wear out like a waterproof zipper. It will perform the same in a cold environment (unlike a zipper) and can easily be closed with gloves on.
Who Uses Dry Bags & What Are They For
Waterproof dry bags are one of the most common items for many outdoor activities. It’s easy to see why, over the years, many people have adopted them.
Backpackers: Wanting to separate valuable gear keeping it clean and dry. Have multiple smaller dry bags of different colors help keep them organized.
Water Sports: It’s ubiquitous to find a large waterproof dry bag on a Kayak or Canoe. Waterproof backpacks are used for paddleboarding or SUP for short. Large dry bags are also routinely used for rafting as well.
Camping: Dry bags are used to keep wet gear separate from dry clothes. Small dry bags can hold electronics, keeping them safe from water and dust.
Alternative Uses: Using them as a pillow, gathering water, a bear bag, and a boat anchor.
These are just some of the uses for people that need to protect their equipment.
Different Closing Dry Bag Styles
Closing roll-top dry bags is recommended, but let’s look at other ways of closing them. Let’s compare the zip-top and zipper closing bags to the roll-top.
Zip-Top or Ziploc Closing Dry Bag
This type of bag is excellent for smaller, lighter items that fit nicely in the small pockets of a backpack. I keep a few Ziploc bags whenever I go hiking to keep my toiletries clean. The problem with this closing mechanism is when you have larger, more substantial items.
With heavier gear rolling around in a Ziploc bag, the top can easily blow out. If you close a Ziploc bag with air in it, a small amount of pressure will pop the bag right open. A roll-top dry bag won’t do this. If enough force is applied to a roll-top style bag, the seams will blow out before the top will.
Cold weather will make the zip-top stiff and hard to close. While they will be fine in most temperatures the cold weather will affect the performance.
Freegrace sells a dry bag that has a zip-top combined with a roll-top. While this isn’t necessary or really adds any extra protection, they claim it’s for added security. They also note that in cold weather, the zip-top won’t perform well, and oil needs to be applied before closing the bag.
Waterproof Zipper Dry Bags
A true waterproof zipper will not leak, but the problem is many so-called “Waterproof Zippers” are merely water-resistant. This kind of zipper will let water leak in if they are exposed in the rain or dropped in water long enough. Bag manufacturers do this to save on costs because true waterproof zippers are expensive.
Another downside is that waterproof zippers are stiff, so they don’t slide easily like the normal zippers we’re used to using. This can be a real pain in cold weather as the zippers will be even stiffer. Lubricating the zipper can help with this stiffness.
As with zip-top bags, zippers can blow out when overstuffed. If this happens while you’re out on the trail, you could be stuck with a useless bag for days.
The last downside is that zipper bags are difficult to close with gloves on. In cold weather, the zipper will stiffen up, making it even hard to close with thick winter gloves.
How to Choose The Best Dry Bag
Before we look at different sizes of dry bags, we need to choose a material first. Dry bags generally come in two different categories, thick heavyweight or thin ultra-lightweight material.
Thick Dry Bags
Some dry bags are heavy, but they’re built to take a beating. Take a look at a dry bag made from 500D PCV Tarpaulin for durability. It’s tough, but at the downside of being very heavy and inflexible. These kinds of dry bags are usually recommended as “best value” because they last for years in harsh conditions.
Benefits Of Having A Waterproof Backpack
One of the most infuriating things about going camping, backpacking, or hiking during the rainy months of the year is reaching your destination and finding all your gear and equipment soaked through. And it doesn’t even have to be raining for you to experience this. Sometimes, crossing a river or a creek or walking under a waterfall is more than enough for this to happen. That is why many knowledgeable and experienced camper or backpacker knows how important it is to have a reliable waterproof backpacking or hiking backpack.
A waterproof backpacking backpack or camping backpack comes with many benefits that you wouldn’t get from a typical everyday backpack. However, some of the latest waterproof backpacks imbued with the best waterproofing technology can be quite expensive which is why some people are on the fence when it comes to purchasing one. If you are looking for a reason or two as to why you should invest in one, we have outlined the best ones below for you. But before we dive into our top reasons why you need a waterproof backpack, let’s go over a brief description of what it actually is and how it is different from another popular type of outdoor backpack, the water-resistant backpack.
The Best Waterproof Duffel Bags: Duffel Dry Bags for Travel & Outdoors
If you’ve ever been concerned about your belongings getting wet while traveling or spending time outdoors—a waterproof duffel bag is your secret weapon. These durable and fully waterproof bags are ideal for situations when you just need the ultimate protection.
A versatile travel backpack is great for everyday travel, but when you need to keep your gear safe from even the most extreme conditions, dry bag type duffels are a much better option.
When traveling, especially in foreign climates, you just don’t know what conditions you’ll find yourself in—and who knows what happens to your bag in transit. I’ve learned to be better prepared and safe, than sorry.
I’ve taken 10+ hour overnight bus journeys only to arrive at my destination finding that my luggage was moved from the secure and dry under bus storage to the top roof rack! Thankfully on this trip I decided chose decided to take my The North Face Base Camp Duffel, which keep all my belongings dry—even through a wet and rainy night.
Your average travel backpack and luggage are great for the casual traveler, but if you are one who seeks adventure and outdoors, they often just don’t cut it.
Most travel bags will do a decent job keeping your gear dry when exposed to light rain, but a fully waterproof bag will ensure your stuff stays dry—no matter what.
Cooler Bag Technology
The original ice chest was made out of galvanized metal. Later versions were made from hard plastic. They were double-walled with a layer of dense Styrofoam in between which helped to keep the contents cool. Today’s ice chests are still made this same basic way.
Styrofoam was a suitable insulator, but it had to be relatively thick to maintain internal temperatures for an extended period of time. And, of course, Styrofoam is easily dented and broken, so it had to be encapsulated in a hard shell to prevent breakage. As such, ice chests have to be rigid.
By contrast, cooler bags are not rigid. Instead, they are usually made from heavy but flexible fabrics, like polyester, on the outside. The inside is lined with heavy duty foil. In between the outer and inner layers are layers of materials like flexible foam, which are thin but dense and have the ability to maintain internal temperatures for several hours. This technology allows for a bag that is flexible and thin and, therefore, easy and convenient to transport. Also, unlike their rigid predecessors, cooler bag can be manufactured in a wider variety of sizes and shapes.
How to get abandoned, lost and discarded ‘ghost’ fishing gear out of the ocean
Fishing gear and plastic marine debris is a growing global issue. Abandoned, lost or discarded fishing gear — often called ghost gear — can contribute up to 76 per cent of all marine debris found during beach cleanups.
Estimates of the weight of abandoned fish gear vary widely by region and by type of gear used. One study retrieved 14 tonnes from the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In one fishing region in Nova Scotia, an estimated 22 tonnes of fishing gear remains at sea. Overall, an estimated 640,000 tonnes of ghost gear is lost globally in the oceans every year.
This derelict fishing gear continues to catch fish, including commercially valuable and threatened species, and other marine fauna. For example, ghost gear, especially nets, are responsible for entangling seals and sea turtles. One abandoned fishing net in Puget Sound in the United States is expected to catch two invertebrates per day, one fish every three days and one seabird every five days.
It also costs fishers. Ghost gear reduces catch rates and cuts into profits, it is expensive to replace and it can be dangerous — getting tangled in propellers and snarling anchors.
What Makes a Good Fishing Cooler?
Fishing cooler bag generally spend a lot of time in the sun and around the water, so it’s important that these coolers are both rust resistant and UV protected. Other benefits of a true fishing cooler will be the added insulation as well as odor and stain resistant materials. A good fishing cooler will also need to come equipped with a good seal to protect ice retention. There are many great fishing coolers to choose from, but have you ever thought about an insulated fish bag? These insulated bags can be a great alternative depending on how you plan to use your fishing cooler.
What is a Fishing Bucket?
Fishing bucket is frequently used by professional fisherman for the simple fact that they have been proven that the original weight of a fish can be maintained by placing it in an insulated bag with ice. Good insulated fish bags are lightweight, weighing much less than even small coolers. UV resistant, they are designed to hold ice all day; keeping your newly caught fish fresh for hours. These insulated fish bags should be leak proof and should be constructed in a way which makes them easy to clean. So, which is the best choice for your next fishing trip? Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of both.

Gaming chair guide: Expert shares how to buy a gaming chair

Gaming chair guide: Expert shares how to buy a gaming chair[/url]

What is a gaming chair?

There’s nothing particularly unique about gaming chairs, except the style. Sure, you’ll find everything fromgaming armchairstogaming chairs that bring you down close to the floorand everything in between. But these days, the term “gaming chair” tends to denote a specific type of office chair with a leather or faux-leather build, a high-back race car-style seat and colorful patterns.
1. DXRacer Racing Series Gaming Chair
DXRacer was the first brand to produce this style of gaming chair back in 2006 and has grown to offer many different shapes and styles — most built on the same race car chair design. This model uses an artificial polyurethane leather with high density foam and a carbon fiber texture on the seat. You also get strap-on lumbar and neck pillows, and a number of colors and patterns to choose from.
Since their inception, gaming chairs have grown incredibly common behind esports teams, Twitch streamers, YouTubers and other gaming personalities — leading to a surge in popularity.

Are gaming chairs ergonomic?

The word “ergonomic” gets thrown a lot in marketing — especially when it comes to chairs — ultimately, ergonomics is all about customizability.
“If I had to pick one important thing, it’s that a chair be easily adjustable” said Karen Jacobs, a board-certified professional ergonomist and clinical professor occupational therapist at Boston University. Specifically, she explained, you want a chair whose height, tilt and armrests are versatile, and then you want to actually learn and use those adjustments so you can get that ideal sitting position at a desk. In fact, it’s best if you adjust it throughout the day to vary your posture just a bit, rather than staying in one formation. So, in summary, adjustability is key.
2. GTRACING Gaming Chair
There are dozens of chairs using this racing seat design, but with different features. Many more affordable chairs like this popular model on Amazon — whose more than 18,500 reviewers left it a 4.5-star average rating — allow the back to recline but don’t allow for the full seat to tilt. If you’re sitting at a desk for long periods, you’ll likely want that full tilt mechanism.
It can be tempting to lean forward during an intense gaming session, too, but you don’t want to sit like this for very long. “The chair isn’t providing the support you need,” noted Jacobs. You want to be able to tilt the chair back and forth to promote some movement. In addition, she said, you want some cushion in the armrest and a porous, breathable material in the seat, neither of which is particularly common among gaming chairs. The lower the price, in fact, the quicker the faux-leather will start peeling and the seat cushion will wear down to its rock-hard bottom.
None of this is to say gaming chairs are terrible. Certain models do allow you to lean back and elevate your legs, much as you would on a couch, which will be decently comfortable. Jacobs also mentioned that if you’re sitting back, the extra high back support can be nice, provided you have support for your neck, too — a lot of gaming chairs come with neck pillows, though some may be more comfortable than others.
3. Secretlab Titan Gaming Chair
Unlike more affordable models, the SecretLab Titan — built primarily for medium-to-larger folks — has full tilt functionality and adjustable lumbar support within the backrest. It also comes in fabric and NAPA leather variations, giving you a few more options in terms of materials.

Gaming chair versus office chair?

I get it: Gaming chairs look cool, and might feel a bit more comfortable at first blush. But just because a seat is comfortable when you first sit down doesn’t mean it’s going to be good for longer sessions at your desk.
“Typically, it can take a week or longer to really evaluate a chair for comfort,” noted Jacobs. If you can, find a company and retailer that will let you try the chair out for at least a week, if not more so you can dial in the adjustments and decide whether it’s right for you.
Ultimately, the chair you get will probably depend on your use case. If you want a chair that’ll let you kick back on soft leather for an hour or two, a gaming chair may fit the bill. But if you’re working from home or gaming for hours on end, you’re probably going to get more for your money with an [url=http://www.hzjiemax.com/office-chair/]office chair designed for long sitting sessions. High-end, well-known office chairs like the Herman Miller Aeron and Steelcase Gesture are hard to beat when it comes to adjustability, comfort and long-term durability, but more affordable models like the Komene Mesh or HON Ignition can do the trick, as well.
How to Choose the Right Bar Stool
Choosing the right type of commercial furniture is crucial, as it does not only define the entire look of your shop or office, but also influences customer impression of your business. This is even more important for businesses in the food and dining industry; bar and restaurant furniture are integral in creating the perfect ambience and theme for your interiors, which can make or break the customer’s dining experience.
For owners in the process of designing their bars or restaurants, one of the first things to look at are the chairs and bar stools. These are the cornerstone of your establishment’s dining space and are crucial to the entire dining experience. Selecting chairs is actually easy as they are often sold in sets. For bar chair, however, the process of choosing can actually get tricky. To help you decide which type of stool to use, we have rounded up some do’s and don’ts that you ought to follow:
Do: Measure your counter or table height.
For bars and restaurants, table height is usually at 40 to 45 inches. In this case, you can easily narrow down your selection to 30-inch bar stools. At the same time, measure its width and make sure that there’s still space for your customers to comfortable ease their way into or out of their seats.
Don’t: Choose a bar stool with no back if your table is not high enough.
Bar stool without backs is usually used when customers are more likely to lean on the table while watching the game, drinking, chatting, etc. However, they might get uncomfortable if there is not enough support, so you’d better choose a stool with arms and a back in this case.
Do: Consider using metal bar stools for your bar.
Metal is easy to clean, affordable, and stylish enough to match most countertops and tables. If you have a wooden floor and counter, it creates a contrast between modern and rustic design. An example of a very simple and minimalist metal barstool is our Kellis Stool.
Don’t: Use a metal bar stool with back and arms support for small spaces.
Metal bar stools with back and arms support may limit the space and are more appropriate for a home kitchen or bar (but this can work if you have swiveling bar stools). As much as possible, choose stools that occupy minimal amount of space, but make sure they’re still comfortable enough to accommodate even people with larger body types.
Do: Go for wooden bar stools if you want a more country and rustic look
Wood and woven stools offer a more traditional feel, usually made of dark woods, painted woods, and sometimes with leather cushion. These stools are the top choice for designers going for the vibe of sports bars, classic 50’s bars, or European-styled restaurants. Nextrend offers several wooden barstools such as the Destiny Barstools.

O-Ring Types and O-Ring Material Makeup – A Guide

O-Ring Types and O-Ring Material Makeup – A Guide
Rubber O rings are a form of gasket or seal that features a round cross-section. They are commonly used to prevent leaks of either fluids or gases from occurring in products, systems, or machinery and find use across a variety of industries. Because of their low cost, simple production process, ease of installation, and pressure resistance, they have found application in a lot of common products, such as automobiles and engines. The aerospace industry useso-ringsin many types of rockets and aircraft applications.
This article will review information on the types of o-rings and material options available, along with their suitability for different applications.
Selection Factors
The fact that o-rings can function in so many applications is largely attributable to the fact that there is a wide range of materials available from which they may be fabricated.This range of selection allows the designer to consider the properties of the material and select a suitable option based on how well that material performs against the expected operating conditions of the application. The factors that are usually considered when selecting a material for an o-ring include:
The material’s compressibility or hardness (durometer)
The performance against environmental and operational conditions, including:
Corrosive chemicals
The abrasion performance of the material
The permeability of the material (permeation)
The cost of the material
O-rings are usually produced from some form of elastic polymer or elastomer. These polymers are cured, often through vulcanization, resulting in improved strength, durability, and elasticity. Different materials have different properties, though, with some exhibiting greater elasticity and others possessing more tear-resistance.
Temperature range:Between -100 degrees Fahrenheit and 500 degrees Fahrenheit.
Suited forTongueurePTFE O ringsare very rigid and hard to apply, butPTFEencapsulated o-rings handle surface wear well, in addition to exhibiting corrosion and abrasion resistance, non-permeability, chemical inertness, and low absorption.
Avoid:Like silicone,PTFEis rigid and is better suited to static applications.
Applications:Examples of PTFE o-ring uses include automotive steering devices and paint guns.
O-rings Information
Solid O-ring is solid-rubber seals that are shaped like a doughnut. When pressed between two mating surfaces, O-rings block the passage of liquids or gases.
Types of Seals
O-rings can form a static or dynamic seals. A static seal is where the O-ring does not move and is used simply for containing pressure or maintaining a vacuum.Dynamic sealscan be reciprocating (like a piston and cylinder), or rotating (shaft rotating in a housing). Straight threads used with O-rings provide a better seal than tapered threads used alone.
A boss seal is also an O-ring, however it does not fit the standard sizes for an O-ring. A boss is a cylindrical projection on a casting or forging. The end of that projection is machined to provide a flat, smooth surface for sealing.
Application Methods
Axial squeeze and radial squeeze are two methods for applying an O-ring. An axial squeeze is when the ring is compressed parallel to a line drawn through the center or axis of the ring. In a radial squeeze the ring is compressed between the internal diameter (ID) and overall diameter (OD).
Imporant specifications for hollow O-ring include size, material, hardness rating and features.
Rubber X-ring is a torus (donut) shaped seal with a clover shaped cross section. Because of the clover design, the X-ring has a lower coefficient of friction and has multiple sealing surfaces on each side increasing its sealing ability and reduces the amount of force needed to seal and so extends the life of the seal. X-Rings are interchangeable with O-rings especially where lower coefficient of friction values are required.
X-Ring Advantages
The design of an X-Ring eliminates the effect the flash lines has on its sealing ability. In an O-Ring flash lines are on the outer and inner diameter, which are sealing surfaces. Excessive flash can effect the ability of the sealing surface to provide a tight seal. On an X-Ring flash is not an issue.
The grooves on the sides of the X-Ring can retain lubricant, lowering friction and extending the life for the seal. Also, the X-Ring’s clover leaf design provides 2 sealing surfaces per side as opposed to one sealing surface per side on an O- ring. With the multi-sealing seal points on one ring, less compression is needed to obtain an effective seal. Less friction and wear will ultimately increase service life and reduce downtime.

All-rubber V-rings

Rubber V-ring is used for rotating shafts in an extremely wide range of applications. The V-ring can be used alone to protect a wide assortment of bearing types from contaminants while reliably retaining the lubricant. They are also often used as secondary seals to protect primary seals in highly contaminated environments.

V-rings are installed on shafts and their thin, tapered lip seals against a counterface perpendicular to the shaft. V-rings have an interference fit on the shaft, rotate with it and act as flingers. Angular misalignment of the shaft relative to the counterface can be tolerated. V-rings provide reliable sealing even if the shaft is out-of-round or rotates eccentrically. The amount by which the shaft can be displaced axially is governed by the permissible displacement of the V-ring relative to its counterface.
V-rings are made entirely of elastomers without fabric or metal reinforcement and are therefore easy to install. They can be stretched and, depending on size, pushed over other components like flanges, pulleys or even housings. This is a very valuable feature, especially when replacing a seal.

Four Reasons to Use Air Hoses Instead of Hydraulics
In the manufacturing world you might ask when or why should I use air hose instead of hydraulic hose?Pneumatics follow the same power movement principle as hydraulics except it involves the movement of gases instead of fluids.While pneumatics and hydraulics each have their ideal places in a wide range of industrial operations, there are times when it’s beneficial to use air hoses to meet your needs.
Four Reasons to Use Air Hoses
1. Clean power: Pneumatics is cleaner than hydraulics.If there’s a leak, only air isreleased instead of slick fluids which are dangerous and hard to clean.
2. Easy Set-up: It is normally easier to set-up because many industrial facilities already provide compressed air.
3.Long Term Investment: Pneumatic equipment might be more expensive overall than hydraulic equipment, but generally it requires less maintenance and has a longer operating lifespan.
4.Speed:Although air hoses aren’t made for high pressure applications, they provide for rapid movement operations.They are designed with speed in mind, not strength.
The real-world applications for air hoses are seemingly beyond measure as they can be used in all forms of industrial automation.Air hoses can supply power to cylinders and vacuum pumps as well as funnel compressed air to jackhammers, staplers and impact tools.They can even be used to provide vehicle functionality for mobile equipment and can also be used in areas of agriculture, mining and drilling.Having been designed for age, weather, and oil resistance, this type of hose is suitable to transport air in multiple workplace environments and conditions.
High Quality Of PTFE Rod From Tenglong Sealing
PTFE Rodhas excellent resistance to most chemicals and solvents and is capable of operating at high and low temperatures. It also has a very low coefficient of friction and is commonly used in food contact applications. It provides good thermal stability and has good electrical properties, but is not suitable for wear application and is difficult to bond.

Slide bearings, insulators and rollers.

Key Features:
Temperature: -200°C to +260°C.
Very good sliding properties and anti-adhesive.
Excellent resistance to chemicals and UV.
Outstanding resistance to low and high temperatures.
Food approved.

Complies with EC No. 1953/2004 and EC No. 10/2011for plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food.
Complies with FDA food regulations21 CFR 177.1550 and FDA 21 CFR 175.300.
Offers a class UL94 V-0 flammability rating, meaning the polymer will self-extinguish after removal of flame.

PA Speaker Buying Guide

PA Speaker Buying Guide
How to Choose PA Speakers
Achieving consistently high-quality live sound can be a challenge. Your choice of PA speakers can determine whether you’re mixing to make something good sound great or struggling to solve sound-reinforcement problems. There are three basic categories of PA systems: 
Personal PAs 
Medium-sized PAs
Full-scale PAs
Personal PAs consist of single speakers or mini speaker arrays, which serve as both main speakers and monitors. Medium-sized PAs consist of a pair of stand-mounted speakers on either side of the stage plus simple monitor wedges. Full-scale PA systems involve multi-speaker line arrays and complex monitoring systems.
We’ve created this Sweetwater Buying Guide to provide you with the information you’ll need when you’re ready to invest in new PA speakers. Since there’s so much more to consider than what we can possibly cover here, give your Sales Engineer a call at (800) 222-4700 after checking out this guide. They can help you choose the best PA speakers for your situation.

How Much Power Do I Need?
At Sweetwater, we’re often asked how much power is required for a PA system. But the real question is “How loud do you need it to be?” as your power requirements will vary according to your situation. Are you performing low-volume acoustic folk or high-volume progressive metal? A classical presentation or an EDM performance? The size of the venue is also important, as is the number of people attending (human bodies make terrific sound absorbers). A medium-sized venue (250–500 people) may require 2,000 watts or as much as 20,000 watts, based on these factors.
So, is it all about wattage? Not necessarily. After all, more power doesn’t necessarily mean more output. While a speaker’s wattage definitely affects its volume, its maximum SPL (Sound Pressure Level) is a better indicator of how loud the speaker can go. Understanding a speaker’s coverage angle is also important. A powerful speaker with a narrow coverage angle will reach fewer people than a less powerful one with a broader coverage angle. It’s also vital that you consider the speaker’s sensitivity, which is a measurement of its ability to effectively convert power into sound. In a nutshell, sensitivity refers to the SPL that a speaker can produce from a 1-watt signal at a distance of 1 meter. This sensitivity spec measures “efficiency” and is a strong indicator of a speaker’s loudness, which is why a less efficient 1,000-watt speaker isn’t necessarily louder than an efficient 500-watt speaker. In fact, a 500-watt speaker with a sensitivity of 98dB will actually be the same volume as a 1,000-watt speaker with a sensitivity of 95dB.
A TV or home theater speaker system in a single cabinet. Soundbar speakers are designed for apartments or venues where discrete speakers are not desired throughout the room. Self powered, soundbars often support a wireless subwoofer for maximum bass response, which can be conveniently located anywhere in the room. In the more sophisticated systems, “virtual surround sound” is produced by psychoacoustic effects that adjust the timing and volume of the various speakers. Some units bounce the sound off side and back walls, which can be effective in small rooms, while others do not rely on precise placement.

The Soundbase
A soundbase is a soundbar that is deeper and flat so the TV stand can be placed on it. See home theater, home theater speakers and home theater in a box.

Why Ceiling Speakers Are Good (Worth It) For Surround Sound
While I was remodeling my home theater, I decided to take a look at ceiling speakers to increase my surround sound, but I found they were going to take a lot of work. This got me wondering whether ceiling speakers were worth the hassle.
So, are ceiling speakers any good?
Ceiling speakers make a great addition to a home theater, particularly if you’re looking for a more immersive sound experience. They need to be specifically designed for ceilings, but they make an excellent addition to a surround sound setup.
When Are Ceiling Speakers A Good Addition?

It’s fair to say that not everyone’s home theater will benefit from ceiling speakers. After all, if you’ve only got a small room dedicated to your home theater, you might already have enough speakers.

Also, if you live in a rented property, you might not be able to carry out the work necessary to install them. These are some of the situations when you’ll probably see the most benefit from ceiling speakers:
1. They’re less messy
Sure, speakers aren’t usually considered ugly, but many people prefer to minimize clutter as much as possible.
If you’re building a home theater, you’ll inevitably have cables running everywhere, and so at least mounting your speakers in the ceiling means you have a few less cables to worry about.
2. They’re a good way of completing a surround sound system
You’ve already got a set of “normal” speakers (think bookshelf speakers or monitors) then you might not want to go out and buy a new surround sound system.
Ceiling speakers are a potentially easier way of completing this, as you can mount them behind your seating area and use them as the rear channels.
3. They allow you to be more flexible with your layout
If you choose to mount your speakers in the ceiling, then you won’t have to worry as much about positioning your furniture around floor speakers.
Not only will this mean fewer cables, but if you get swiveling ceiling speakers, then you’ll have plenty of freedom over where to put your furniture.
4. They give you a more immersive experience
Surround sound is all about immersion, so why not get the most out of your home theater? Cinemas use ceiling speakers for the same reason, so it makes sense to splash out on some if you can.
A woofer is a speaker that is sized and constructed so that it can reproduce low and mid-range frequencies. Woofers do most of the work in reproducing the frequencies you hear, such as voices, most musical instruments, and sound effects.
Depending on the size of the enclosure, a woofer can be as small as 4 inches in diameter or as large as 15 inches. Woofers with 6.5-inch to 8-inch diameters are common in floor standing speakers. Woofers with diameters in the 4-inch and 5-inch range are common in bookshelf speakers.

A tweeter is a specially designed speaker that is smaller than a woofer. It only reproduces audio frequencies above a certain threshold, including, in some cases, sounds that human ears cannot hear but only sense.
Because high-frequencies are highly directional, tweeters disperse high-frequency sounds into the room so that the sounds are heard accurately. If the dispersion is too narrow, the listener has a limited amount of listening position options. If the dispersion is too wide, the sense of direction of where the sound is coming from is lost.
These are the different types of tweeters:

  • Cone: A smaller version of a standard speaker.
  • Dome: The voice coil is attached to a dome that is made of fabric or a compatible metal.
  • Piezo: Instead of a voice coil and cone or dome, an electrical connection is applied to a piezoelectric crystal, which in turn vibrates a diaphragm.
  • Ribbon: Instead of a traditional diaphragm, a magnetic force is applied to a thin ribbon to create sound.
  • Electrostatic: A thin diaphragm is suspended between two metal screens. The screens react to an electrical signal in such a way that the screens become out-of-phase. This alternately attracts and repels the suspended diaphragm, creating the needed vibration to create sound.

Mid-Range Speakers
A speaker enclosure may incorporate a woofer and tweeter to cover the entire frequency range. However, some speaker makers add a third speaker that further separates the low-range and mid-range frequencies. This is referred to as a mid-range speaker.

There are many ways to add new life to your music in the car, but new speakers offers one of the fastest and most cost-effective ways to upgrade your sound. We have what you need, whether you just want to replace your factory speakers or if you plan to install an amplifier and need speakers that can handle a lot of power.
Shopping for car speakers can be confusing, so we try to make the process as straightforward as possible. Watch the video below for an overview on how to shop for new car speakers.
Crutchfield makes it easy to shop for car speakers
The first thing you’ll need to do is use our vehicle selector to tell us what you drive. We’ll ask a few questions and then show you the best options for your vehicle.
The Crutchfield car speaker recommender
Once you’ve told us what you drive, you’ll find the car speaker recommender at the top of the car speakers category page.
The recommender is a great tool that could land you the perfect set of speakers in minutes.
How many car speakers do I need?
There’s no standard for the number of car speakers that are factory-installed in a vehicle. In fact, they seem to get more numerous every year as car makers introduce premium factory sound systems with perks like noise cancellation and simulated engine noise. But for this article, we’ll stick to the basics.
When replacing front and rear speakers, a good goal is to have a voice-matched system. That means having the same brand and series of speakers in the front and rear. If you’re on a budget, that doesn’t have to happen all at once. Focus on your front speakers first. When you’re ready, update the rear with speakers from the same speaker series (or at least, the same brand) for consistent sound characteristics.
Speakers for the front of your vehicle
Some vehicles only have two speakers in the front, one per door. They use a full-range design. Other vehicles feature four speakers in the front, two per side. This is typically woofers in the door and a tweeter either higher up in the door or in the corner pillar or dash.
Many vehicles also have a center dash speaker, which typically handles vehicle essentials like door chimes and navigation prompts, in addition to playing music. Many people opt to leave the original speaker in this spot.
Speakers for the rear of your vehicle
Rear door speakers, rear deck speakers, and tailgate speakers are often full-range, although components have become increasingly popular. Rear speakers provide sound to backseat passengers and “rear fill” for the front row. Rear speakers generally don’t make a significant contribution to the sound experience in the front seats. As a result they can be less important to drivers who don’t have passengers very often or to sound enthusiasts who don’t want any interference with their front soundstage.
What size speakers should I buy?
It’s easy to feel overwhelmed by a long list of car speakers, all with different sizes. The good news is you don’t have to sweat speaker size too much once you’ve told us what vehicle you’re shopping for and whether you’re shopping for front or rear speakers (or both).
Sometimes you’ll have a choice of a couple speaker sizes for a given location. In that case our rule of thumb is, “the bigger the better.” So, given the choice between a 5-1/4″ using a bracket or a 6″x9″, we’ll usually say go with the 6″x9″ for more oomph.
The finer points of fitting car speakers
When looking at speaker fit, we’re not just talking about the diameter of the speaker opening. We’re also considering the allowable depth of that opening, sufficient room for the tweeter in front of the speaker, and several other factors. You can learn more about the details in our article about understanding speaker sizes. If speaker brackets are required to install your speakers, we’ll include them.
Full-range vs. components — what type of speakers should I get?
Aftermarket car speakers can be divided into two main categories: full-range speakers and component speaker systems. Let’s take a look at each.
Full-range speakers
Full-range speakers contain all the speaker elements in one basket. In their simplest form, they consist of a woofer for the lows, and a tweeter mounted onto the woofer to produce the highs. Some models will have additional drivers, like a midrange and/or supertweeter – these are referred to as “3-way” or “4-way” speakers.

A basic guide to strapping tools and industrial packaging machinery

A basic guide to strapping tools and industrial packaging machinery
Strapping Bands or Strapping Belts are used to bundle (or band) items together as one unit, to strap an item to a transporting structure such as a pallet. Strapping also known as bundling and banding, is the process of applying a strap to an item to combine, hold, reinforce, or fasten it. Strapping cargo prevents movement and slipping of products. When handlers are unloading the goods, the products will not fall out, reducing the risk of workplace injury. Place Dunnage Airbags to fill gaps in between cargo units to prevent movement during transportation. Lashing Bands can also be used to hold cargo units together on the container.

To maximise efficiency, use a tensioner to secure the Strapping Band, Stream Peak provides high-quality, durable, and robust Tensioners (strapping tools for PP PET strapping) for different cargo loads. We provide Manual Tensioner, Battery Operated Tensioner, Pneumatic Strapping Tensioner, and Ratchet Tensioner.

We provide Strapping Band Dispensers, which allow a smooth and hassle-free release of strapping bands to prevent tangling. They come with a moveable handle, which enables easy adjustments and oscillations. Finest steel or plastic construction offers extra strength, resilience, and durability. These dispensers can be used for dispensing steel or plastic strapping with ease.
The strapping and industrial packaging industries can be challenging to get your head around if you haven’t had any exposure to them, or their products, before. Are you feeling overwhelmed about the components that are used with the manual tools as well as the high-tech automatic machines?

Let’s get back to basics and break down everything you need to know about strapping products. With this information, you’ll be able to make the right choice for your business.

The first step is to consider if you need to implement them in your business or not. Small businesses that need strapping for carton, crates, or pallets less than 15 times a month will find a manually operated tool is sufficient for their needs. If you need to perform this task every day, you’ll benefit from investing in a strapping machine. You’ll find it will boost your productivity because it will save your team time.

You should also look at your team’s capacity. Automated machines could free up your staff to focus on other areas that need attention. This could improve productivity, motivation, and quality control. Most important is protecting your product. A simple investment in a strapping tool could drastically reduce the damage your items experience in transit. Damaged boxes or pallets can be an overhead that affects your bottom line and your brand’s reputation. More suppliers may be willing to work with you if they know your packaging arrives safe, secure, and undamaged.

Perform an audit on your loads. If you work with smaller cartons, a table or arch strapper is the right product for your business. Large crates and pallets can be strapped manually unless you’re working with large volumes. In this case, you should investigate horizontal or vertical pallet strappers.

The type of materials you need to secure will also inform your choice in a strapping hand held strapping tool. For example, industries that trade in the print media area will require specialized machines to use on palletized loads.

Another thing you need to explore is the strapping that you will be used to secure your products. They will affect the tools you use and the method you apply them. Polypropylene is inexpensive and can be used for many applications. It is usually secured using a buckle and tensioner system, metal crimping seal or can be friction welded. A tensioner tool can be used to achieve the correct tension. Steel strapping can be secured with metal crimping seals using a device that crimps the strap.

So, what types of tools will you need? Let’s look at the options:

Combination tools
This tool combines a tensioner, sealer, and cutter in a single device.

How it works: Once the strap is locked, tensioned, and sealed, the combination tool crimps the seal and cuts the strap from the spool.

Suitable for: Straps up to 19mm wide.

Safety cutter
This tool is used on plastic strapping. Steel straps need specific tools. They are like metal cutting shears or bolt croppers and may come with rubber pads on the side of the blades.

Friction weld tool
This is a combination tool. It can be used with polypropylene and oriented polyester strapping.
There’s a wide range of both manual tools and automatic machines that are used in the strapping industry. If you’re new to the market, it can be challenging to choose what’s best for your business. Read on as we take you through everything you know to make your selection process easier.

What you need to know about strapping tools for cord strapping and machinery
March 20, 2020 by Guest Post

Click here to get this post in PDF

What you need to know about strapping tools and machinery
There’s a wide range of both manual tools and automatic machines that are used in the strapping industry. If you’re new to the market, it can be challenging to choose what’s best for your business. Read on as we take you through everything you know to make your selection process easier.

How often you need to strap a carton, crate or pallet will help you make the decision. Unless you need to perform these tasks reasonably regularly, a manually operated tool will be sufficient for your business. You could even settle on a standard set of tools. But, once your frequency for packaging increases, it will be worth your while to invest in a commercial-grade strapping tool or machine. The increased productivity will pay off the overheads pretty quickly.

If you are packaging relatively small cartons, you will be able to use a table strapper. The packages can be loaded with ease onto a table strapper, where they can then be fed through the arch of the strapper. Pallets or larger crates only have the option of being manually strapped unless they are being strapped in large numbers.

The tools you need to use to secure strapping, and the method you use will also be determined by the strapping you plan to use.

What you need to know about strapping tools for steel strapping and machinery
March 20, 2020 by Guest Post

Click here to get this post in PDF

What you need to know about strapping machine
There’s a wide range of both manual tools and automatic machines that are used in the strapping industry. If you’re new to the market, it can be challenging to choose what’s best for your business. Read on as we take you through everything you know to make your selection process easier.

How often you need to strap a carton, crate or pallet will help you make the decision. Unless you need to perform these tasks reasonably regularly, a manually operated tool will be sufficient for your business. You could even settle on a standard set of tools. But, once your frequency for packaging increases, it will be worth your while to invest in a commercial-grade strapping tool or machine. The increased productivity will pay off the overheads pretty quickly.

If you are packaging relatively small cartons, you will be able to use a table strapper. The packages can be loaded with ease onto a table strapper, where they can then be fed through the arch of the strapper. Pallets or larger crates only have the option of being manually strapped unless they are being strapped in large numbers.

The tools you need to use to secure strapping, and the method you use will also be determined by the strapping you plan to use.

Follow these tips when choosing the right tools for the strap:

First, consider polyester cord strapping. It is the easiest to work with and comes in various forms, including woven strapping, composite, and hotmelt. It is secured with a metal buckle or a plastic one.

You’ll only need a tensioner as the buckles lock onto the strap preventing it from loosening.
The strap will be easy to cut using a sharp knife or cutter.
If you want to tension the strap again because the load has shifted, you’ll be able to do so using the buckle system. 
Another option is polypropylene. It’s a popular choice because it is versatile and cost-effective.  You can use it with both buckles and tensioners, or it can be secured with a metal crimping seal. Friction welding is also an option. Oriented polyester, which looks similar, can also be friction welded or crimp sealed.

If you opt for steel strapping you’ll need to use metal crimping seals to secure a package. There are further choices you can explore, such as using a tool to crimp the strap that allows it to form a firm grip.

If you choose to go with a separate tensioner and sealer, you’ll find there are certain advantages, such as a low individual weight. Using separate tools also gives you more choice because it can be used on a vertical surface. Some can also be fitted with attachments so they can secure odd-shaped packages. They are versatile so you can adjust notch strength to increase the strength of the seal, for example.

A combination tool can tension, seal and cut. Once it locks and tensions the strap, it then applies the seal manually. It is a tensioner, sealer, and cutter that is combined in a singular tool. The strap is locked and tensioned. Then the seal is applied manually. The tool crimps the seal and will then cut the strap. They are limited to straps up to 19mm wide. If you need to work with wider straps, you’ll to use separate tools.
When it comes to strapping cutters a safety cutter is sufficient for plastic strapping. Steel straps need specialised tools. Thinner grades of the strap will require similar shears, but you’ll need to use stronger tools for heavier grades.

Friction weld tools are another type of combination tool. They can be used with polypropylene, but you also have the choice of using oriented polyester strapping. The bonus is that they lead to shorter strapping cycle times and regular strap tensions. It’s suitable for high volume strapping of crates or pallet loads.
Table strappers are useful for those faced with medium volumes of carton strapping and bundling. They work with polypropylene strap sand friction weld sealing. The process is fast and leads to consistent strapping. They are usually mobile, so can be stored and only brought out when needed, which is a space-saver on the floor. Side action strappers can be mounted on the side of the table instead of under it so it can be used in wet or dirty conditions. The types of items you are packaging, and the conditions of your warehouse will determine which of these is most appropriate for you to use.

Arch strappers are suitable when you need to strap high volumes of cartons continuously. Some models are used with receiving conveyers. 

Pallet strappers are time savers if you’re working with high volumes.


USB (an acronym for Universal Serial Bus) is a standard of communication that is commonly used for transferring data and powering devices. This standard introduced a new type of cable that was developed in the 1990s and has continuously evolved in the decades that followed. In this section, we outline the evolution of the USB cable and describe the types that exist today.

USB types
USB connectors come in several types: the default sizes (USB A, USB B and USB C), Mini USB type A and B and Micro USB A and B.
USB A has an elongated, rectangular form and can carry power and data. The USB A plug is used to provide a downstream connection to controllers or hubs.
USB B is narrower, squarer shaped and commonly used for connecting peripheral devices such as printers and scanners, or as an upstream port for USB hubs. USB B connectors are still in use today but slowly being phased out and replaced with USB C connectors and ports.
USB C is the newest USB interface, launched in 2014. With a narrower, more elongated shape than USB A, USB C has more pins enabling it to transfer a larger amount of power and data. USB typc C cable is currently compatible with Apple MacBooks with Thunderbolt 3 ports, Chromebooks and the most recent laptop models.
USB Mini plugs were designed for use on USB peripheral devices such as older smartphone models or digital cameras While still in use on some devices, USB Mini is now broadly seen as a legacy connector, and not certified as compatible with newer devices.
USB Micro is an even slimmer version of the USB mini-plugs, being better suited to newer models of OTG (on-the-go) devices while enabling the same level of connectivity. USB Micro is now the standard connection type for charging smartphones.

USB versions
USB 1.0 is the original USB standard, where the limit for data transfer is 12Mbps. USB 1.0 was originally designed to connect peripheral devices such as mice, keyboards and game controllers. As the simplicity of the USB connector interface grew in popularity, the USB standard evolved to USB 2.0 in 2000.
USB 2.0 provided a much higher connection speed with a throughput of 480Mbps. The cable is also known as High Speed. The standard length of USB 2.0 passive cables is 5 meters. Active cables, on the other hand, can have a length of up to 20 meters. 
The USB 3.0 specification was released in 2008. This type is also known as SuperSpeed, being able to transfer data at a speed up to 5.0Gbps. SuperSpeed USB cables can be told apart with the SS logo and the blue color in the internal part of plugs and port. The standard length for passive cables is 3 meters, while active cables can be up to 20 meters long. The 2nd generation of USB 3.1 can transfer up to 10Gbps of data.

HDMI, an acronym for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, is an interface for transmitting digital audio and video data from a source device to a presentation/output device such as a projector or display or digital audio device. The initial HDMI standard HDMI 1.0 was created in 2002 as a collaboration between major technology manufacturers including Panasonic, Phillips, Sony and Toshiba. Since then, this data transmission interface has evolved and improved, and several versions of HDMI are now available. Each new HDMI version has brought about an exponential increase in audio/video capacity, resolution, improved color spaces, and advanced features such as CEC (Consumer Electronics Control), 3D and Ethernet data connection.

HDMI Cable Types
HDMI Standard cables work with resolutions up to 720p and 1080i with bandwidth capacity up to 5 GB/s. It is suitable for HDMI versions 1.0 to 1.2a.
HDMI High-Speed cables work with resolutions of 1080p, as well as 4K@30Hz, 3D, and Deep Color. This type of cable has a bandwidth capacity of up to 10 GB/s. It is recommended to use this type of HDMI cable if you are connecting a 1080p HD display to a 1080p HD content source. It is suitable for HDMI versions 1.3 to 1.4a. With the HDMI 1.4 standard, this cable can also be used for 3D video.
Premium HDMI Cable is a certification that ensures the HDMI has been tested for reliable performance of advanced display technology such as 4K@60Hz, HDR and expanded color range including BT.2020. The bandwidth capacity is 18 Gbps and it is optimized for HDMI version 2.0.
The latest HDMI cable type – the Ultra-High-Speed HDMI cable – is the only one that complies with the specifications required to support the HDMI 2.1 specification. This includes uncompressed 8K@60Hz and 4K@120Hz, and a bandwidth capacity of 48GBps.

Notable HDMI specifications
HDMI 1.4 HDMI 1.4 came out in 2009 and was a significant game-changer in the AV industry. Worthy of mention is the addition of the HDMI Ethernet Channel, which allows HDMI cables to act as ethernet cables, 3D over HDMI, ARC (Audio Return Channel), the HDMI micro connector and 4K@30Hz data transfer speed.
HDMI 2.0 The HDMI 2.0 standard was released in September 2013. With this standard, the HDMI bandwidth was increased to 18 Gb/s, 4K support increased to up to 60Hz, and added support to the 21:9 aspect ratio, mostly used in theatres.
HDMI 2.1 The HDMI 2.1 stand was released in November 2017, adding support to even higher resolutions and refresh rates, now reaching 4k@120Hz and 8K@120Hz. The HDMI 2.1 standard’s features require the Ultra-High-Speed cable to function smoothly. Other features include Dynamic HDR, DSC 1.2 (Display Strem Compression), and enhanced eARC (enhanced Audio Return Channel).

How long should HDMI cables be?
With rooms getting bigger and packed with more and more devices, your AV equipment might not be as close to each other as you would like it to be. You will need to route long enough cables to connect equipment that is located quite far from each other. The electronics industry’s maximum recommendation for HDMI cable length is 50 feet or 15.24m to ensure optimal video and audio quality. Most HDMI cables available on the market reach a maximum of 25 feet or 7.62m, making that length a safe bet
With longer cables, you risk reducing the quality of the signal and experience audio lag and image degradation and screen flashing. To ensure signals with higher resolutions and refresh rates, such as 4K@60Hz, it is recommended that you use shorter cables, active cables (containing a processing chip that ensures the signal travels without loss), fiber optic cables or an HDMI extension over shielded CAT5e/6/7 via HDBaseT.

Tidier cables with Neets Input Panels
In larger rooms or more complex equipment setups, the number of cables and their lengths can quickly escalate, causing issues of safety, performance and pure aesthetics. Safety is a primary concern, as cables trailing on the floor are an obvious tripping hazard. Trailing cables are also exposed to frequently trampling and being run over by office chair wheels, damaging them and reducing the quality of the connection. Finally, trailing cable connections makes the room look messy and unprofessional.
Luckily, there are cable management solutions on the market that can eliminate these problems simultaneously. We’re talking about what are known as wall sockets or plates such as Neets’ own range of Input Panels.
With an input panel installation, you can run your desired length cables through the wall or ceiling, connecting each end to the back of the input panels. The input panels are installed in strategic locations around a room, making it easy to connect different HDMI components and send bi-directional audio and video signals between the components, all the while having a neat and clean look in your meeting room, conference hall, classroom or auditorium.

Perhaps surprisingly, the main reason for buying wireless headphones is not to support the tireless efforts of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. No, the number one reason for picking up Bluetooth headphones is of course because they’re wireless. Not that I have anything in particular against cables, per se, but the freedom going wireless offers you is unparalleled.
No more tangled headphone cords, no need to take your device with you as you walk around the house, no accidentally yanking your earphone cable out or knocking your phone off the table, no wear and tear, no safety worries with the new breed of the smartphone with no analog port. The first time you head to the gym with a pair of wireless TWS earphone on, I guarantee you’ll become an instant convert.

A Buyer’s Guide to LED Tube Lights

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]Replacing your fluorescent tube lights with LED retrofits can be a confusing and daunting process. We’ve put together this guide to demystify all of the ins and outs of replacing your fluorescent tubes with LED tube lights.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]1) Advantages of LED tubes over fluorescent tubes

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]The many advantages of LED tubes over fluorescents are covered quite extensively, so we won’t go into depth, but the three primary advantages are:[/font][/font]

  • Higher efficiency, energy savings (up to 30-50%)
  • Longer lifetimes (typically 50k hours)
  • No mercury

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]2) Fluorescent tubes sizes and LED tube light retrofitting

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]Because fluorescent fixtures are often mounted into ceilings and connected directly to mains electricity, they are relatively expensive and difficult to replace completely.[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]As a result, it oftentimes makes the most economical sense to simply use the same fluorescent fixture, but replace the fluorescent tube with an LED tube light.[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]Therefore, it is important to understand the types of fluorescent tubes that were developed, so that the correct LED panel light can be retrofitted in place.[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]Over the years, fluorescent tube manufacturers developed many varieties of sizes and types.[/font][/font]

  • T8 4-ft: Four-foot T8 fluorescent lamps are the most commonly used type today. They are 48 inches in length, and have a 1 inch lamp diameter.
  • T12 4-ft: Four-foot T12 fluorescent lamps are less efficient compared to T8 lamps. They are the same length as T8 lamps, but have a larger 1.5 inch lamp diameter.
  • T5 4-ft: Four-foot T5 fluorescent lamps are typically the most efficient, and some of the newest types of lamps introduced in the 2000’s in the USA. They are commonly designated T5HO (high output) and provide more brightness than their T8 counterparts. They are slightly shorter than four feet (45.8 inches). T5 lamps come in a variety of lengths such as 1-ft, 2-ft and 3-ft versions and are commonly used in non-ceiling fixtures such as table lamps.

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]T8 and T12 tubes are also available in other lengths such as 8-ft tubes, but 4-ft lengths remain the most common types.

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]LED tube lights replicate the mechanical dimensions to ensure that they can be true retrofit replacements, and adopt the same form factor names (e.g. 4-foot T8 LED tube light).[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]T8 and T12 fixtures are generally the same length and use the same pins, so mechanically they are usually cross-compatible.[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]T5 fixtures are NOT cross-compatible with T8 and T12 lamps due to their different pin sizes and actual length.[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]3) Fluorescent ballasts and LED tri-proof light retrofitting[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]All fluorescent tube lights use a device called a ballast to regulate the lamp’s brightness as it warms up. These devices are necessary for fluorescent lamps, and differ from incandescent lamps which can be connected directly to mains electrical circuits.[/font]

[font=”Open Sans”, verdana, arial, sans-serif]Fluorescent lamp fixtures typically house the ballast inside the fixture, and is not accessible without removing the fixture from the ceiling. Alterations to the fluorescent lamp ballast should be done only by those comfortable and knowledgeable with electrical work.[/font][/font]

Today LED high bay lights deliver equal or better lighting performance with only a fraction of the energy consumption of the traditional fluorescent tube LED flood lights. LED tube is the newest product line in the tube family made up of white LED chip modules. Provided with the advantages of long life-span, radiation-free, energy saving, environmental friendly.
Once you learn about the benefits of LED tube lights, you will see and understand why they are a positive choice for anyone looking to improve the environment with their lighting choices. In this Article, we will be comparing LED linear Lighting and traditional Fluorescent Tube Light by following characteristics

  • Function
  • Light Output
  • Power Consumption
  • Directivity
  • Color

[font=”Century Gothic”, CenturyGothic, AppleGothic, sans-serif]What are LED Tube Lights?[/font]

LED tube lights are among the most popular and versatile lighting solutions available today. They’re particularly well suited to applications and install environments where the goal is to achieve a flexible variety of modern, clean-looking indoor lighting in rooms and displays of all sizes.
You’ll often find assemblies of larger LED tube lights being used to provide bright, even lighting across many types of wider or more open spaces. Common examples might include commercial displays, workshops and laboratories, kitchens, hallways, foyers, factory floors, gymnasiums, car parks, and any other communal, multipurpose or high traffic areas.
Smaller LED tubes are also highly popular options for accent lighting in and under cabinets, worktops and other items of built-in or freestanding furniture, as well as in many different types of signage assemblies and other important display areas.
Today, a huge number of homes, business premises and civic facilities are transitioning away from the traditional, older style fluorescent/CFL tube lighting and installing LED alternatives in their place. There are several great reasons to do this, with the most compelling being the lower running costs and far longer lifespans of LED lamps vs fluorescent equivalents. This generally results in vastly improved efficiency throughout the working life of the light. In turn, this ultimately means that you can expect far better value over time, as well as considerably reduced environmental impact, by switching to LEDs.
In this introductory guide, we’ll find out a little more about the different types of LED tube lights you can buy online, as well as briefly looking at how to fit them. We’ll also compare LED tubes to other common types of tube and strip lights, and contrast the relative strengths and weaknesses of each kind.
[font=”Century Gothic”, CenturyGothic, AppleGothic, sans-serif]T5 LED Tube light and T5 Tubes[/font]
LED tube lights are usually categorised by various key designations. The most common of these are tube length (this can be stated in either imperial or metric measurements) and bulb or lamp size. Lamp size is typically given as a ‘T’ measurement, with widespread standard sizes including T5, T8 and T12.
If you’re wondering exactly what is the difference between T5, T8 and T12 lights, the main point to remember is that the higher the T rating, the thicker a lamp will be in diameter. T equals 1/8 of an inch and the number after the T denotes how many eighths of an inch wide the bulb is – hence T8 is exactly one inch or 8/8ths. You can use this to calculate the diameter of different sized LED tube lights. Therefore, T8 tubes at 1-inch (25.4mm) have a larger diameter than T5 tubes (5/8-inch or 15.9mm), but they are not as wide as T12 (1.5-inches or 38.1mm) lamps.
In standard fluorescent tubes, smaller diameters almost always mean better efficiency. A T5 bulb will use less energy to produce the same amount of light as a T8, while a T12 will run at about 45% higher electricity consumption to output the same amount of light as a T5. Being vastly more power-efficient across the board, newer LED equivalents don’t follow quite the same pattern in terms of percentages. However, the basic principle remains similar, even if the ratios between bulb diameter and energy usage stay far closer together as you move up the lamp sizing scale.
It’s also worth noting that different tube sizes will tend to be associated with different lamp bases or sockets. T8 and T12 tubes are mounted to bi-pin G13 bases as standard, while T5 tubes are normally attached to a bi-pin G5 socket fitting. In simple terms, this is essentially the tube light equivalent of standard bulb cap styles and sizes.

A Beginner’s Guide To Acoustic Treatment

[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]An account of an acoustic newbie’s journey from bare walls to a well‑balanced, sonically pleasant space.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]The physics of the propagation of sound is immensely complicated, and when the assortment of materials that make up the walls, floors and ceiling (plus any windows, doors and furniture) are added to the equation, it’s very difficult to predict what will happen to sound waves once they’ve left their source. What’s more, every room is different, and it’s not just the dimensions that will dictate how the room will sound… Imagine two rooms of the same shape and size. One has two‑metre-thick concrete walls, and the other a single‑layer plasterboard stud-wall. Even with those brief, albeit extreme descriptions, you probably know already that the two rooms will sound very different. Add in the multitude of room shapes, sizes, wall‑construction methods and surfaces found in home studios, and it becomes impossible to provide a one-size-fits-all guide to acoustic panel treatment.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]The subject of acoustics is regularly discussed in SOS, but plenty of readers still ask for the subject to be covered from a much more basic starting point. What follows is a look at installing acoustic treatment from a complete beginner’s perspective: some basic, essential information, along with a bit of advice from acoustics professionals that should give you the confidence to get started. I’ll follow this up by taking you step by step through my own recent experience of treating a room.[/font]
Why Bother With Acoustic Treatment?
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Untreated rooms have an uneven frequency response, which means that any mixing decisions you make are being based on a sound that is ‘coloured’, because you can’t accurately hear what’s being played. In short, you can’t possibly tell how your mix will sound when played back anywhere else. It isn’t just an issue for mixing, though, because any recordings you make of acoustic instruments will bear all the hallmarks of the space in which you record them. That may be a good thing if the space in question is Ocean Way or SARM West, but probably preposterously bad if it’s your living room or bedroom. So, if you want your mixes to transfer well, and your recordings to be free of room ‘honk’, you need to pay attention to the acoustic properties of your environment — no matter how good the gear you’re using.[/font]
First Things First
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]The first thing to grasp is the outcome you want to achieve. It’s a common misconception that acoustic treatment with acoustic ceilings or acoustic baffles should kill all reverberation, and that you want a room covered floor‑to‑ceiling with foam tiles: this isn’t what you’re aiming for. You also need to bear in mind the limitations imposed by space and budget: most home studios are small in comparison with the Abbey Roads and AIR Lyndhursts of this world, and many home‑studio owners simply don’t have the funds for bespoke treatment solutions.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]So what is the aim? Andy Munro, acoustic design specialist, remarks, “acoustic design is the science that restores a neutral sound balance”. Applying that science means interfering with the path of sound to control the sound energy. Jorge Castro, chief acoustician at Vicoustic, says that “in the case of affordable treatment, we need to control the energy of the sound first. Then we can take care of the sound quality. With small spaces, bass frequencies are always a problem, and we should control the low frequencies as much as we can.” In fact, he continues, “In small rooms, I’ve never heard people saying they have too much absorption of low frequencies.”[/font]
Absorption & Diffusion: What, Where, Why?
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]To achieve the right balance, there are two main approaches: absorption and diffusion. Products that have absorptive properties include foam and rigid mineral-wool (see the ‘DIY & Rockwool’ box), and they ‘soak up’ the sound energy, turning it into heat, through friction. Most effective on high‑frequencies, absorption is essential for reducing flutter echoes and for taming bright‑sounding or ‘ringy’ rooms. Bass trapping is also a type of absorption, but is specifically designed to absorb low‑frequency energy. A clever combination of soft, hard, thick and thin materials, including air, is used to make the most efficient bass trap, and an empty gap between the wall and the back of the trap helps to make it even more effective.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Diffusion is the scattering of sound energy using multi‑faceted surfaces. Diffusers are commonly made of wood, plastic, or even polystyrene. Jorge Castro explains: “diffusion helps in energy control and improves the sound quality in frequencies throughout the middle and high range of the spectrum, and also improves sweet‑spot image.” The ‘sweet spot’ is the place between the speakers where you should be sitting to get the best stereo image (imagine that your head and the two speakers form an equilateral triangle). That pretty much concludes the theory: now for the practice![/font]
Getting Started
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Before undertaking this project, I’d read plenty about acoustics, but had never attempted to properly treat a room myself: the nearest I’d come was propping foam panels against the walls to tame flutter in the spare‑room‑cum‑studio of my rented house. I hadn’t been able to glue or screw anything to the walls, for fear of incurring my landlord’s wrath, and the thought of retouching the paintwork after tearing strips of self‑adhesive velcro pained me too! So this was very much a learning experience.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]The space in question included an area that would provide a reasonable‑sized live room, and another that would serve as a small control room, and although both were important, I really wanted to get the performance space right. I decided that I’d buy commercially available panels, because I simply didn’t have the time, space or inclination for the DIY option. Most manufacturers of acoustic products also offer a consultation service, and they often have free on‑line calculators to help you decide on a suitable treatment option, too, so even if you choose the DIY route this can be a sensible place to start, and fabric acoustic panels are also available.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]I chose to get my treatment from Vicoustic, a company relatively new to the UK acoustic‑treatment market who make a range of products for studios and home theatres. I told them that, as this was the only live room for a small project studio, it needed to be quite versatile, with both a ‘dead’ corner for dry recordings and a more ambient space to liven up acoustic recordings where needed. I’d expected a solution with almost complete wall coverage, foam panels and diffusers covering every square inch, but Vicoustic came back with a plan that surprised me, which suggested that total coverage wasn’t necessary.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]In fact, Jorge says that the typical home studio needs only between 30 and 40 percent coverage to adequately treat it. So don’t go over the top: remember that we’re trying to control the energy, or “restore the natural sound balance,” and not to kill the sound completely.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]As for the proportion of diffusion to absorption, Jorge says, “some believe it should be 50 percent absorption and 50 percent diffusion. In the home studio, because of budget and space constraints, the actual proportion can vary considerably.”[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]So, you’ve decided on your acoustic foam treatment, you’ve had it delivered, and it’s piled in the middle of the room. The next step is sticking it up on the walls, right? Well yes… but you also want to make sure that it goes in the right place, partly to optimise its acoustic performance, and partly because you don’t want it to look like it’s been put up by a two‑year old! As a first‑timer, I found it useful to have the 3D drawings Vicoustic had supplied, as they enabled me to plan precisely where each panel would go. You can create a computer‑generated version of your room yourself using a freeware 3D drawing programme such as Google Sketchup (http://sketchup.google.com). This may seem a bit over the top (sketches on the back of an envelope would do the job), but it can provide a useful guide to print out and use like a map during installation. What’s more, you can plan the look of a room, moving tiles and panels around on the computer instead of having to rip them off the wall if they look silly.[/font]
Measure Twice, Stick Once
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]With my ‘map’ in hand, it was time to mark up the walls. The Vicoustic plans showed the panels equally spaced along the walls, but without any dimensions or measurements to indicate how to space the tiles, so I measured the whole room and planned the position of all the panels supplied. A quick and easy formula for plotting the position of a row of equally spaced panels soon emerged. To calculate the distance between each panel, and between the end panels and the walls, you just measure the length of the wall, subtract the total width of all the panels to be fixed to it, then divide that figure by the number of gaps between panels (or by the number of panels plus one). Marking up is then a cinch, but to get things looking good, you’ll need to mark the corner points and will require a spirit level and a spare pair of hands. O[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]nce plotted and marked, it’s also a good idea to double‑check that you have the same number of actual panels as you have on your plan![/font][/font]

Stick ‘Em Up!
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]With the planning done, it’s time to stick the panels to the walls and ceiling. The way you do this depends on the type of treatment you’re applying. Large, framed panels will come with brackets and (hopefully) sturdy fixings, whereas foam‑based tiles will need to be glued, using an aerosol‑based product or a tube of paste‑like glue that needs a skeleton gun. Spray‑mounting can often give less than satisfactory results, so I was glad to discover that the Vicoustic delivery included the tube variety. With just two tubes supplied, though, I soon had to resort to alternatives, and found that the sticky gunk used to fix mirrors to walls worked exceptionally well.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]To prevent the glue squidging out from the sides of the panels, I piped the glue on no less than an inch from the guide line on the wall and on the back of the panel itself, in different patterns, to increase the adhesion. With this kind of glue, I found that it would begin to set in about a minute, allowing just enough time to pull the panel off and turn it if it was the wrong way up. When sticking panels to the ceiling, I took the same approach. It was a textured ceiling, which called for lots of glue and a firm hand to seat the panels: again, it’s useful if you can get a friend to lend a hand.[/font]
Hearing The Result
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Once in place, the Vicoustic treatment worked very well. The main part of the room is now nicely controlled, if a bit on the ‘live’ side, and the diffusers ensure excellent intelligibility of speech: a sure‑fire sign of good acoustic control. I had a few spare corner traps, which were put into the dry corner, to make it even more ‘dead’, and it will be easy to add a few smaller foam tiles to dampen the sound further if it’s found to be too ‘roomy’ further down the line.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Having tried some recordings in the room, I’m happy to say that excellent sound barrier can be achieved between acoustic instruments and vocals by using the different areas of the room. Because the sound inside the room is controlled, the ambience can be used to good effect if a roomy sound is desired on the recording.[/font]
Ultimate Control
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]So far, I’ve only addressed the dedicated live/recording space, and most home studios are single rooms, with both the monitoring and performance areas in the same space, so I asked Andy Munro to explain how to approach treating such a space. “The best approach,” he said, “is to sketch the room out, then divide each dimension into thirds. If the mixing position is on a third ratio, and so are the speakers, they will not stand on any of the half or quarter ‘standing’ wavelengths that cause a peak or trough in the bass [see the ‘Standing Waves’ box for more information]. The result will be a smoother sound, with fewer problems when the acoustic absorption and sound barrier is added. Ironically, most professional rooms are set up about the centre line, which tends to result in a ‘hole’ at certain frequencies.”[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]Also important in monitoring rooms is the control of early reflections. When a speaker cone is driven, it disperses acoustic energy to the listener’s ears directly, and also to the walls and ceiling of the room, and the best example may be acoustic diffuser. Uncontrolled, these early reflections bounce back into the room and reach the listener a few milliseconds later than the direct sounds, because of the additional distance they’ve had to travel. Unless in a large room, this delay is not perceivable as a different sound; instead it disturbs the phase, and therefore the clarity, of the sound. To keep early reflections on a tight leash, the ‘mirror points’ of the room should be identified and treated. To do this, sit in the listening position and ‘guesstimate’ where a mirror would have to be placed to enable you to see each monitor cone from the sweet spot. Then apply absorption to these points. A ‘ceiling cloud’ can be positioned in a similar way, to control vertical reflections.[/font]
[font=”Open Sans”, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif]No matter how much you spend on instruments, amps, speakers and recording gear, you still need to pay attention to the space in which you use them. The treatment of home studios is tricky, because of their size and the construction materials used, not to mention the budget of the average home‑studio owner. It’s impossible to get a ‘pro-studio sound’ from a space that’s built as a spare bedroom, mainly due to the laws of physics, but also because ‘proper’ studios might have big bucks spent on acoustic design with soundproof materials. But if you can get your head around what you’re trying to achieve, you can still make such a space perfectly usable, with only a small amount of money, some forward planning and a little bit of knowledge.[/font]

Paper Bag Making Machine: The Ultimate Guide

In film blowing, flow instabilities limit the production rate and the quality of the film produced. The phenomena of sharkskin and melt fracture are known to commence when a critical wall shear stress is exceeded at the die lips. The critical value from laboratory experiments with capillaries is usually reported as 0.14 MPa, while in industrial installations much higher values are attained with the use of various additives, such as fluorocarbon polymers for LLDPE. In other processes involving polymer melt stretching, such as melt spinning and film casting, the phenomenon of draw resonance might be present under certain conditions. Draw resonance is a periodic fluctuation of diameter (in melt spinning) or thickness (in film casting). There have not been any relevant studies on draw resonance phenomena in film blowing.

What is a Paper Making Machine?
Apart from the other devastating problems associated with plastic bags, did you know that synthetic bag manufacturers produce about one trillion of those bags in a year globally?
Did you also know that it takes one thousand years for a single bag of this kind to biodegrade?
Yes, that’s the scariest part of it.
Due to that, most governments are imposing bans on these carriers.
The alternative?
A mega-shift to more environmentally friendly paper bags.
So basically a paper bag making machine is a state of the art machine that gathers, folds, stamps, and processes papers to produce clean paper bags.
These paper bags are for use in the packaging of goods in various industries such as food, pharmaceutical products, grocery, and baking industries.
The bag making machines come in various configurations depending on the type of bags for final production.
Therefore, the paper bag making system should be versatile enough to cater to the dynamics in the paper bag manufacturing.
Today different paper bag making stakeholders such as the machine manufacturers, raw material suppliers face a lot of shifting customer demands, government regulations, changing prices, etc.
It’s thus good only if the machine can afford the manufacturer some relief.
For that matter, it means that you need to know all the factors related to the paper bag making the machine.
Besides, all the accompanying dynamics before making a purchase.
Luckily, I have compiled all that you need to know in this article.
The history of development and use of paper bag making machine with paper cutter dates back to the 19th century.
During these early stages, the systems were simple and mechanically operated.
With that, we move to the next step.

Where to Use Paper Bag Making Machine
Take a moment to reflect on the occasions you use a paper bag.
Indeed paper bag forms a vital integral in our lives today.
From simple uses such as carrying random goods to more complex ones such as in pharmaceuticals to wrap up drugs.
One thing is for sure.
Without paper bag making machine, or slitting machine, we would be missing a significant aspect of our lives.
Surely, there are numerous uses of paper bag making the machine.
Subsequently, the produced paper bags can be classified under different distinct categories depending on their purposes.
Some of the major classifications are:
· Bread paper bags
Usually, if you go to the bakery store or supermarkets, you will find the bread wrapped up in brown paper bags and displayed.
There is a significant reason why grocery stores do this kind of wrapping.
Now, most of you might have had guesses about the reasons why the bakery stores bread in paper bags.
Is it for aesthetical values to make it look fancy so that you get wanting to buy some?
Or, is it to make you believe about the degree of freshness of the loaf?
Some firmly think it’s solely for being environmentally conscious.
Trust me;
The bread paper bag covers serve much more values than those reasons above for maintaining more prolonged periods of freshness.
That’s right;
The paper bag plays a significant role in helping to keep the bread stay fresh for an extended period — this how it works.
The paper bags especially the open ones provides a path for the continuous circulation of air in and out of the bread.
The constant air circulation would then make the bread to form a crust which is also vital for the maintenance of freshness.
The bread crust formed on the outer layer of the bread may seem dry but beneath that crust, lies a moist and sweet food.
For that matter, it remains fresh for an extra three to four days.
On the contrary, if you do the same packaging in a plastic bag, this what will undoubtedly happen.
The plastic bag will retain moisture in the bread thereby keeping the whole crust and bread soaked in moisture thus becoming mushy.
As a result, the dough will likely give you two or one day window for you to consume it a failure of which it loses taste.
For that matter, the best packaging for your bread would undoubtedly be the one.
It gives you freedom for consumption for at least within 3-4 days.
More extended consumption period is what paper bag presents you.
· Shopping paper bags
Paper bags processed by flexo printing machine are suitable products for easy carrying to various places.
One of these places should be the market or store.
Paper bags are very much ideal for packing and fitting your goods when shopping.
Hence, if you need a place to stack up and pack all your shopping, then paper bags would serve you dearly.
Another thumbs up for paper bags is because they are open to customization to meet the customer’s requirements.
Such kinds of specialization could be the production of different sizes, colors, and branding.
In fact in the present, most countries around the globe have banned the use of plastic bags for shopping purposes.
As a result, a paper bag would dearly serve your shopping needs.
· Clothing paper bags
Do you always feel bothered with packing your clothes in a heavy traveling bag?
Are you tired of carrying your clothing in heavy bags everywhere you go?
We have a solution for you.
Over recent years, the clothing bags have proved to be very simple to use, flexible, convenient and light in weight.
Indeed am very sure everyone will one time encounter these kinds of new bags.
Besides, they come in different sizes giving you options for selecting the one that satisfies your needs.
Above all, they comprise of different types of materials such as black cardboard paper, white cardboard, coated paper, kraft paper or special paper.
Again, the different kinds of material variety give you the freedom to select your favorite material.
Notably, this class of paper bags is also much appealing to the eye as it’s possible to print them using different customized models such as logos, pictures, etc.
These customizations can as well help you promote your brand or company.
· Leisure paper bags
If you’re not aware, some brands of paper bags are solely suited for leisure purposes.
Today, several ladies carry specially designed paper bags when going to special occasions such as a walk, date, shopping or parties.
A survey conducted in Tokyo revealed that most teenagers prefer carrying leisure paper bags whenever going for a leisure walk to standard backpacks or even briefcases.
These leisure bags have got beautiful printable designs with different portrays to look good.
The custom printing and designs would help you reach a more diversified market.
Do you visit the nearest gymnasium to your house?
Then a leisure paper bag is suitable for you to carry along your fitness clothing, shoes, and even a water or energy drink bottle.
· Fruit paper bags
When it comes to the handling of fruits, a paper bag does so many functions.
Most common roles of a fruit paper bag are:
i. Packing fruits or carrying fruits from the market.
I trust whenever you go to the market to buy fruits of your choice, the attendant places them in a paper bag.
The packaging style is vital to help you carry the fruits along back home without worrying about wherever to put them.
Furthermore, the paper bags are very hygienic to shield them from getting contaminated with germs or harmful chemicals.
ii. Ripening fruits
Have you ever been in a stressful hurdle of trying to get fruits to ripen faster?
Continue reading…
It’s so much simpler to get fruits to ripen up. You only need to have a paper bag by your side.
Then do the following.

  • Place the fruits in a paper bag.
  • Leave the top of the paper bag slightly open.
  • Wait for a few days for the fruit to ripen. That’s it.

The technique behind this innovation is that most fruits release small quantities of ethylene gas.
Since you left the paper bag slightly open, the emitted ethylene gas doesn’t escape but in turn, gets reabsorbed by the fruits.
Continuous reabsorption of the ethylene gas initiates several physiological changes to the fruits.
The most notable one is accelerating the ripening process of the fruits.
Though it’s not easy to accurately estimate the rate of ripening of the fruits using this method.
What researchers have proven is that ripening via paper bags takes shorter time compared to natural maturation.
However, you need to ensure that the paper bag isn’t tightly closed because by doing that the fruits may instead rot.
Tightly or thoroughly closed paper bag would leave no space for emission of other fruit emissions majorly moisture.
Apart from causing the rotting effect, the humidity also facilitates the growth of mold in the fruits. The same results will occur if you use plastic bags.
· Food paper bags
Unquestionably paper bags form the foundation of most food packaging needs because other than from being eco-friendly, they’re economical, variety and flexible.
On the economic perspective, if you’re dealing with a newly established business, then food paper bags is right for you to enable you to save on expenses.
Besides, you can custom print the bags to make you give your company the correct exposure you need to gain ‘muscle strength’ in the market.
Amongst a variety of diverse range of paper bags, the most popular ones include sulfite and kraft.
The food paper bags are always coated free and non-treated to reduce the initial costs
The bags are suitable for packing low – wet or moisture-containing food.
For that matter, you can use these bags for packing takeaway foods such as cookies, pastries, sandwiches, muffins, rolls, chips, etc.
They are specially designed to keep the food always fresh and crispy without it losing its taste.
Besides, the bags come in a variety of sizes.
Some of the typical categories of food paper bags are:

  • Coffee bags – they are available in different content carrying capacity such as 0.5 lb,2lb, 5 lb, etc. to make them even more effective, they are grease resistant.
  • Candy/bakery bags –perfect for a variety of foods.
  • Bread bags
  • Glassine bags
  • Cookie and sandwich bags – these are moisture and grease resistant.
  • Chicken carry bags

 Drug packaging bags
The pharmaceutical industry is a critical field that hugely relies on the use of paper bags.
The environmentally suitable and recyclable paper bags are often used to pack almost everything from prescriptions, dosing to the cards issued out.
These bags can be printed in many colors up to four and are available in different sizes depending on the application for use.
Other forms of customization are also familiar with these paper bags to assist you in branding and to advertise your business and the services you offer.
The bags are available in different raw materials including white or brown kraft, clay coated gloss.
Pharmacies, veterinary clinics, hospitals, and other health centers are just a few areas which utilize the need for paper bags.
Since packaging is an integral service in the pharmaceutical industry, it’s always thoroughly regulated depending on the country of origin of the bags.
Some of the standard measures put in place for the production of paper bags are:

  • Assurance of the patient wellbeing,
  • Confirmation of the efficacy of the drugs for the intended shelf life
  • Sufficient documentation of all the materials and processes of production
  • Regulation of any chances of contamination of the drugs by the packagings.
  • Avoidance of microbial contamination.
  • Control of quality degradation of the drugs by moisture, heat, etc.

The smaller packs of drugs are usually precisely measured and placed into smaller original paper bag packages.
Over the counter drugs are also the primary beneficiary of the paper bags.
The packaging contains all the relevant usage information including the dosage.
These drug paper bags are usually resistant to tamper as well as having the child resistant properties.
Those are some of the main areas and applications where you may use the paper bag making machines or plastic granulator.
With that, we should move to the next segment of our discussion. Shall we?