## In what order do you half and double when damage is both halved and doubled? [duplicate]

Suppose a creature is vulnerable to radiant damage, and is beginning its turn in the area of effect of Moonbeam. It will be taking radiant damage, and the damage roll is a 13. It succeeds on its saving throw, so the damage is halved, but it is vulnerable to radiant damage, so the damage is doubled.

Is the damage first halved, giving 6, and then doubled, giving 12? Or is it doubled first, then halved to give 13? Or do the effects cancel, for a total damage of 13?

## How to assume a number to be a half integer?

For integer x $$\left(\cos 2\pi x\right) ^2=1$$ and I can check this as follows

Simplify[Cos[2 \[Pi] x]^2, Assumptions -> x \[Element] Integers] 

and get 1 as an output. The same holds when x is half-integer. How do I assume this in Mathematica? More generally, is there a nice way to implement assumptions of the type say $$x\in 3\mathbb{Z}+2$$ without redefining variables that I use?

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## Half of my tris are textured in streaks and blurs

I have written code to import meshes from OBJs and textures from BMPs. My texture coordinates seem to be getting messed up somehow, or some other issue is occuring, because I am getting these effects with meshes and textures:

I do not know what to call these issues and I do not know what might cause them (I am new to OpenGL) so it is hard for me to figure out how to fix them. Does this look familiar to anyone? If so, what’s up and how might I fix it?

Relevant code for importing mesh data:

obj.vertBufferSize = sizeof(GLfloat) * vertCount * 3; obj.uvBufferSize = sizeof(GLfloat) * vertCount * 2; obj.vertBuffer = vertBuffer; obj.uvBuffer = uvBuffer;  glGenBuffers(1, &obj.vertBufferID); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, obj.vertBufferID); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, obj.vertBufferSize, &(obj.vertBuffer[0]), GL_STATIC_DRAW);  glGenBuffers(1, &obj.uvBufferID); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, obj.uvBufferID); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, obj.uvBufferSize, &(obj.uvBuffer[0]), GL_STATIC_DRAW); 

Relevant code for importing texture data:

glGenTextures(1, &(bmp.ID)); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, bmp.ID);  glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, bmp.width, bmp.height, 0, GL_BGR, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, bmp.array);  glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_NEAREST); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); 

Before the main loop (for sending mesh data to shaders):

glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, mesh.vertBufferID); glVertexAttribPointer (     0,     3,     GL_FLOAT,     GL_FALSE,     0,     (void*)0 );  glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, mesh.uvBufferID); glVertexAttribPointer (     1,     2,     GL_FLOAT,     GL_FALSE,     0,     (void*)0 ); 

Samples from inside the main loop:

glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);      glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture.ID);  glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, mesh.vertCount);      glDisableVertexAttribArray(0); glDisableVertexAttribArray(1); 

## I’m a quarter Draconian, a quarter Dragonborn and half Half-Dragon?

What are the differences between “Dragonborn”, “Half-Dragon”, and “Draconian” races in D&D?

In the Hoard of the Dragon Queen adventure, for example there is a Half-Dragon npc. I had assumed that when writing the adventure they were only allowed to use known material from Basic, and so renamed the Dragonborn into “Half-Dragon” for the sake of compatibility etc. However, the dragon breath rules are not at all similar for the half-dragon and the dragonborn, and I’ve also noticed wiki article that imply that they are different races entirely. (Thus introducing me to the term Draconian)

Are there clear differences between these three races, (in the same way there are differences between Goblins and Hobgoblins, or Dragonborn and Lizardfolk and Kobolds,) or are they really just three different setting names for the same basic race?

Answers can either be D&D 5e specific, or be based on the lore from all editions of Dungeons and Dragons. (I’m assuming here that the answer will be the same regardless)

Here are two images, the first one is a “half-dragon” from the front of the Hoard of the Dragon queen module, and the second one is a “dragonborn” from the 5e player’s Handbook. I’ve included these images to help explain my confusion.

## Does carrying/dragging a willing/unconscious creature cause half movement as per the grapple rules?

When you carry/drag an unwilling creature that you have grappled, your movement speed is halved.

Is the same true when you carry/drag a willing or unconscious creature (ex: move your friend out of danger) ? Or in other words, a creature that does not resist against your attempt to move it ?

(This assumes that you have a good enough carrying capacity to easily carry/drag an object of the same weight as the creature you wish to move)

## Does Evasion allow half damage even when unconscious?

Evasion is a class feature gained by Rogues and Monks at level 7:

At 7th level, your instinctive agility lets you dodge out of the way of certain area effects, such as a blue dragon’s lightning breath or a Fireball spell. When you are subjected to an effect that allows you to make a Dexterity saving throw to take only half damage, you instead take no damage if you succeed on the saving throw, and only half damage if you fail.

Does this feature allow a character to “dodge” area effects, taking half damage, even if they are unconscious?

## Multi-level paging where the inner level page tables are split into pages with entries occupying half the page size

A processor uses $$36$$ bit physical address and $$32$$ bit virtual addresses, with a page frame size of $$4$$ Kbytes. Each page table entry is of size $$4$$ bytes. A three level page table is used for virtual to physical address translation, where the virtual address is used as follows:

• Bits $$30-31$$ are used to index into the first level page table.
• Bits $$21-29$$ are used to index into the 2nd level page table.
• Bits $$12-20$$ are used to index into the 3rd level page table.
• Bits $$0-11$$ are used as offset within the page.

The number of bits required for addressing the next level page table(or page frame) in the page table entry of the first, second and third level page tables are respectively

(a) $$\text{20,20,20}$$

(b) $$\text{24,24,24}$$

(c) $$\text{24,24,20}$$

(d) $$\text{25,25,24}$$

I got the answer as (b) as in each page table we are after all required to point to a frame number in the main memory for the base address.

But in this site here it says that the answer is (d) and the logic which they use of working in chunks of $$2^{11} B$$ I feel ruins or does not go in with the entire concept of paging. Why the system shall suddenly start storing data in main memory in chucks other than the granularity defined by the page size of frame size. I do not get it.

## Sleep’s hp total and (half-) elf targets

Situation: A Gnome Bard sits in a prison cell, next to her in another cell sits a half-elf Ranger. There is one guard with them in the room, with two or three more in the next room. The Bard casts Sleep at a point that includes everyone but her.

My understanding of what happens: Half-elves are not immune to the spell Sleep, as the spell ignores only unconscious, undead, and immune-to-being-charmed creatures, of which half-elves are neither. Therefore, if the half-elf has sufficiently low hp to be affected, his current hp is deducted from the spell’s remaining roll total before moving to the next target, but he does not fall asleep due to Fey Ancestry. This means that including any targets with Fey Ancestry in the area of a Sleep spell is just a waste of the spell’s potential.

Question: Is my understanding of the situation correct? I’m not as much asking whether or not the half-elf should be affected, as I’m quite sure he should be, but more whether or not his hp would be deducted from the spell’s roll.

Relevant PH fragments: (emphasis mine)

Fey Ancestry. You have advantage on saving throws against being charmed, and magic can’t put you to sleep. (PH p.39)

Sleep (…) Creatures within 20 feet of a point you choose within range are affected in ascending order of their current hit points (ignoring unconscious creatures). Starting with the creature that has the lowest current hit points,(…) Subtract each creature’s hit points from the total before moving on to the creature with the next lowest hit points. A creature’s hit points must be equal to or less than the remaining total for that creature to be affected. Undead and creatures immune to being charmed aren’t affected by this spell. (PH p.276)

## Half orc fighter max starting HP

A non-playing friend of mine was looking around in the DnDBeyond website and created a (what I assume was a 1st lvl) character: half-orc with a STR of 19 and CON of 18. He showed me on his phone, but all I saw were the stats, and HP of 18/18. He said it was a fighter. Is there a way to start w/ 18 HP, given these parameters? My calculation was 14 HP.