How is plaintext handled at protonmail server?

I am quite happy with, indeed grateful for, protonmail. There is one point I’d like to understand better regarding end-to-end encryption. I asked this twice at, and twice it was removed by the moderator. I hope someone here can answer.

I infer that an outgoing message is transmitted via https to the protonmail server where it is pgp-encrypted and the plaintext discarded; the reverse for incoming messages. Is this basically correct?

If so, then “end-to-end encryption” doesn’t mean quite what I thought, and I would like to know a little more about how the plaintext is handled by the server.

I don’t distrust protonmail. I understand that if I felt the need I could download public and private keys and encrypt locally, but then I might as well use gmail :p

Must a component pouch/focus be “out” to be handled, or can I keep it in my pocket?

Ellen the Eldritch Knight is holding a longsword and wants to cast fireball. If she pulls out her component pouch to cast the spell, then (according to this question), she won’t have time during the rest of the action to put it away, so if she gets to make an opportunity attack before her next turn, she won’t be able to use her weapon’s versatile feature. Could this tragedy be avoided by keeping the component pouch in her pocket the whole time and only interacting with it by sticking her hand in her pocket, rather than taking the pouch out of her pocket?

How are hardware interrupts handled?

I have read that a hardware interrupt is handled asynchronously by the CPU, which means that the interrupt signal may arrive at any point of time with respect to the CPU clock cycle. Now, this means that an interrupt may asynchronously hit the processor when it is in the middle of executing some instruction. So, how does the control pass to the OS in this case? For the case of software interrupts (exceptions), we know that the instruction being executed (trap instruction) itself is the cause of the interrupt. So, it will synchronously finish executing and then the control will transfer to the kernel as per the trap instruction nature. How does all this happen for hardware interrupts?

Is it possible to eat an object affected by Allfood while in combat? If so, how is the damage handled?

I realize this is a very strange and seemingly useless question, but hear me out on this. I’ve recently been assessing more creative uses of spells that seem useless in combat but may be made useful under the right conditions. I ran into the spell allfood. It’s a rather useful spell that can turn anything into a consumable food so long as it falls within the weight parameters of the spell: 5 lbs. per caster level. Of course, the limitations on this spell are huge in that an attended item gets a Will save to negate the effect and SR must be overcome.

The way I see it, it should be possible for a character to disarm their opponents, steal their weapons, and make those weapons into food to be eaten. But there’s the devil in the details, specifically for the act of eating. Eating food seems to be an out-of-combat task that’s to be done during rests, so no rules seem to cover how long eating takes or if it’s even feasible to do so in combat.

The first question: What action should it be? According to the rules, it seems like a standard action would be necessary to hold a weapon and bite into it, much like how you hold an enemy and attack it in a grapple, only the object (usually) won’t fight back in this case. However, it could be argued that it should be a full-round action. Obviously, despite whatever action it may take, the action should provoke attacks of opportunity.

And that’s about the only simple part of this whole ordeal that I can reason out, and even that’s not decisive. The rest of the details seem to be very difficult to find information on if any info exists. These details are as follows:

  • How much damage does eating deal to the object? As the allfood spell states, the hardness is dropped to 0 only for the sole purpose of eating the affected object (and not damaging the object in any other way) so the damage should affect the object’s hit points directly, but what is that damage and how is it calculated?
  • Can a creature with a bite natural attack use it to eat a weapon that is under the effects of allfood and have its bite damage bypass the hardness of the weapon, or would this be considered a sunder action that would still take the object’s hardness into account?

User authentication handled by a web service

I seek your help and advice. By default, Drupal manages user authentification using the user module that resides in the “core/modules” and through the main Drupal Database. In my case, the user is authenticated through an external webservice, the process is as follow: 1- The user enters his credentials and click submit 2- the credentials are then sent to the webservice 3- the webservice checks the data(credentials) to the one he has in his database 4- upon validation the webservice sends a token (JWT) otherwise it sends 401 Unauthorized

PS: the admin will have normal login (through Drupal Database)

The question is how can I proceed to elaborate this process of authentification?

  • Is there some existing modules that could help with this?
  • should I override the existing user module or create a new module?

Any info will be of great help.

How are exceptions handled in microservices?

I have 3 microservices and we are sometimes throwing the same exception in all microservices like

MicroService 1      throw new AlreadyLinked  MicroService 2      throw new AlreadyLinked  MicroService 2      throw new AlreadyLinked 

i.e parsing the error message and throwing an exception with help of code. But lately, I have been thinking to create a private repo for an exception so that duplication of code is prevented. But is this the right way to do?

How do I download the image shown on the site, even though it’s handled through JavaScript?

So this is kind of a specific and weird question for a polish site, but its premise is general and you don’t need any understanding of the site itself to get what I’m talking about.

Anyway, as said in the title, I need to be able to download the full-sized image of the product on the site. The problem is, the images of the products are shown through JS, which means to accomplish my goal I can’t simply right-click and download. To see what I’m talking about simply click on the big image of the product in the middle, you’ll see that it expands to a higher resolution, but is still undownloadable the easy way.

If your answer requires some programming or touching the code, I’m more than happy to hear it. If I have to learn something to do this, I will, so please write it anyway. Even though I’m writing this with having in mind that I’ll have to program my solution, but I found this site more fitting than StackOverflow.

What I’ve tried and thought about:

  • Somehow intercepting the requests made to the site while, going through the highest-resolution images, but that seems incredibly convoluted. It’ll take at least 3 days, which seems like a waste of time.

  • Turning off JS and then simply downloading the images. Sadly that lets me download only one and not in the highest resolution, which I need.

Thanks in advance for your help!

When an injured character gains a level, how are hit points handled? [on hold]

I’m used to the party having healers, but I’m running a game right now where a character was injured brutally, down to 1 hit point and they made it to an Inn. They healed somewhat while resting and got into a fight which brought them up to the next level.

When do they get their new hit points? Immediately or after they finish healing the old damage?


Underscores within identifiers not properly handled when importing markdown to Confluence/wiki

I am using the Insert | Markup | Markdown capability within a Confluence wiki page. The import does not properly handle the following:


In native markdown :

enter image description here

When imported (/garbled) by Confluence:

enter image description here

or even just

sys_vertica_nwgr   # italicized sys_vertica_mgr 

enter image description here

Also attempted: using double underscore:

sys__vertica__nwgr   # italicized sys_vertica_mgr 

enter image description here

Assistance/tips in dealing with confluence specific quirks would be appreciated.

Unhandled promise rejection even though rejection is handled

I can’t find which rejection I am not handling. This is my file

function remove(postid) {     return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {         Post.deleteOne({ _id: postid }).exec((e) => {             if (e) reject(e);             else resolve();         })     }); } 

If there is an error, I reject it.

This is my API that calls it:

router.delete("/post/:id", [middleware.myCheck, middleware.myCheckTwo], (req, res) => { => {         res.json(:Gone");     }).catch((e) => res.status(500).json("E")); }); 

I tried deleting a post that does not exist (sent the URL a POST request with a non-existing post id. It gave this error:

UnhandledPromiseRejectionWarning: Unhandled promise rejection. This error originated either by throwing inside of an async function without a catch block, or by rejecting a promise which was not handled with .catch(). (rejection id: 1) (node:2540) [DEP0018] DeprecationWarning: Unhandled promise rejections are deprecated. In the future, promise rejections that are not handled will terminate the Node.js process with a non-zero exit code. 

I have a catch block in my API. Any idea where I went wrong?