If something happens in 25 % of all cases in every generation, what will the frequency converge to in the long run?

I just saw this map http://consang.net/images/c/c4/Globalcolourlarge.jpg (available on Archive.org if it would ever disappear) and become curious about how inbred people actually are.

3 scenarios:

  1. In quite a few countries around 25 % of all marriages are between cousins. If that number is constant over the generations, how inbred is the average person living in such a country?

  2. In the worst countries around 50 % of all marriages are between cousins. Same question as in (1).

  3. And the same the question for the countries with only 1 % cousin marriages.

Where do these three scenarios converge? Naïvely I figured it should be at 50 %, 100 % and 2 % but I can’t really motivate that guess.

What happens if I send a XRP transaction to a blank TAG when I was supposed to send to a specifc TAG?

I sent XRP to a blank TAG while I was supposed to send to the éxchange’s TAG. The address is the one from the exchange but the TAG was left blank. The exchange says that they can’t recover the money.

What happened to the money? Is it theoretically possible for the exchange to recover it? As I understood, a blank tag but rigth address will send the money to the exchange but not in the account of anyone.

ps: I just noticed that “crypto” stands for cryptograpy, not cryptocurrency, could someone move this to a better forum?

What happens when bitcoin drops and i add more money to my wallet

If i have $ 1000 worth of bitcoin with the current price of bitcoin at $ 7000, then later on bitcoin dropa to $ 6500, normally i know ths money in my wallet will drop. But my question is what will happen if i add more money in my wallet then later bitcoin goes back to $ 7000, will i have more than $ 1000?

I have been wondering for a while and yet haven’t come up with a clear explanation.

What happens when you roll a nat 20 on an Animal Handling check?

My Dragonborn Barbarian has animal handling as part of his skillset, which he used to tame a wolf collected from a goblin camp. Now this wolf has proven to be the unsung MVP of our recent encounters lately, even netting a crit kill on a miniboss.

The standard house rules for our group define rolling a 20 on a skill check a crit-skill success, guaranteeing success. Even receiving some minor hyperbole as a bonus. Although in this instance, it’s the first time a skill success was used to improve the stats of a another being, so that’s where the confusion begins.

When my character goes to try and domesticate him with an animal handling check at level 4, he gets a Nat 20. What happens in that instance? Do the wolf’s stats get a bonus or is there no difference?

Can a Vampire Soul be trapped in a Magic jar type spell and what happens if its released?

Going through this right now in my current adventure. One of my PCs got an amulet that acts as a magic jar. They used it to trap a Vampire. I thought about it and let them do it. My question is, if the Jar is broken and the spirit is released will it return to its old body and still be a Vampire or will it have its old “good” soul again?

Oh and a follow up: If the trapped body was destroyed but the spirit found a new “vessel” would that be a vampire also?

What happens when two opposing instances of Bend Luck are applied to the same roll by multiple Wild Magic sorcerers?

Wild Magic sorcerers get the Bend Luck feature at 6th level (PHB, p. 103):

Starting at 6th level, you have the ability to twist fate using your wild magic. When another creature you can see makes an attack roll, an ability check, or a saving throw, you can use your reaction and spend 2 sorcery points to roll 1d4 and apply the number rolled as a bonus or penalty (your choice) to the creature’s roll. You can do so after the creature rolls but before any effects of the roll occur.

How would one resolve a situation where the two instances of Bend Luck are in conflict ?
[i.e. one person is trying to improve the roll while another is trying to reduce it?]

I know from DMG errata version 2.0 page 1:

Combining Game Effects (p. 252). This is a new subsection at the end of the “Combat” section:

Different game features can affect a target at the same time. But when two or more game features have the same name, only the effects of one of them—the most potent one—apply while the durations of the effects overlap. For example, if a target is ignited by a fire elemental’s Fire Form trait, the ongoing fire damage doesn’t increase if the burning target is subjected to that trait again. Game features include spells, class features, feats, racial traits, monster abilities, and magic items. See the related rule in the “Combining Magical Effects” section of chapter 10 in the Player’s Handbook.

The situation involves two instances of Bend Luck (a game feature with the same name), so only the most potent one should apply [since there is no duration here]. But in this case, how would that be determined?

Is the higher roll just taken regardless of whether it’s helping the roll or hindering it? Or should I just assume they cancel out? Or maybe both effects just take place, and I add the effects together (since they are trying to do different things)?

What happens if the private key cretificate of a Trusted Timestamp Authority is compromised?

what happens if the private key certificate of a Trusted Timestamp Authority used to sign the timestamps is compromised?

If this private key certificate is changed, should all timestamps be re-signed with the new certificate?

Does it is a single point of failure to all the SSL/TLS certificates?

What happens in a small scale blockchain network?

My main question here is, is this understanding correct or have I misunderstood something? If this question would be better for Reddit then I apologise in advance and I’ll move to there. Thanks.


So technically I could download the bitcoin source code and run my own altcoin (let’s call it pokercoin) on a network of 5 computers (for me and my 4 geeky friends who wanted to play poker without chips).

If I’m understanding correctly, we would each be running pokercoin source code/qt on our laptops and no other computers would be needed to keep the thing running (or maybe we would need to run something else to ensure the network works, because otherwise there is no other way of the network doing all the IP level stuff? Or do nodes do this and run something other than the bitcoin source code?).

When I make a payment, each of the other 4 computers receives a copy of that transaction, and they all add this to a block of 1 transaction which gets appended to our very short blockchain after 10 minutes (because hypothetically my computer is able to solve in 10 mins).

If 2 of us made a transaction, (the new block to be added has 2 transactions), but the other 3 computers wrote their own block which diverged in truth to my computer and my friend’s computer, then this 51 percent attack would beat the previous block to be appended (or is it added only after ANOTHER block is added (because this is now the longest chain).

We all also get new pokercoin for being miners in our own system (or maybe it is only those running different code who get to be miners).

Finally, none of us actually argues over having any money, because we know that ‘how much we own’ is actually only made up of the network iterating over every transaction that happened in order to calculate our amounts (and this happens every time a new block is made).

We also don’t argue over block sizes, because there are 5 of us.