Can a hybrid character replace his only encounter attack power belonging to one of his classes?

Assume a Paladin|Swordmage with Cha and Con dumping Int or a SwarmDriud|Runepriest with Wis and Con dumping Str. As the relevant ability is very low, it would make sense not to pick any power from the secondary class. However, hybrid rules say you must.
Is there a way around this?

I do not think Reserve Maneuver or multiclass power swaps work, but I am not sure.

Can I take a Skill Power before level 10 with a hybrid character?

Hybrid Characters, Gaining Additional Powers (PHB3 p135):

[…] However, if you have at least two poweers in the same category (at-will attack, encounter attack, daily attack, or utility), at least one of those powers must come from each of your hybrid classes.

Gaining and Using a Skill Power (PHB3 p164):

[…] Whenever you reach a level that grants you a utility power from your class, you can choose a skill power in place of a class power […]

Specific over general does not help here, as both are equally general (or specific).

If we go by the first, you need to have at least 1 from each of your classes, so only your third can be anything else, if by the second, any of your utilities can be a sill power.

Which is it? Can I take a Skill Power before level 10 with a hybrid character?

Why doesn’t OIDC hybrid flow require nonce

The OIDC standard requires the nonce parameter in the authentication request when using the implicit flow:

nonce REQUIRED. String value used to associate a Client session with an ID Token, and to mitigate replay attacks.

However in the hybrid flow the nonce is not required. Yet the id_token is directly returned in the response and also susceptible to injection or replay.

Why is the nonce parameter not required in hybrid flow. What secures hybrid flow from injection or replay of id_token?

Homebrew spell idea for DnD 5e: Chromatic Blade. Chromatic orb + Green Flame Blade hybrid. Looking for feedback and potential balancing

Honestly this was my Eldritch Knight player’s idea but I thought it interesting and am trying to work out the balance.

Spell Concept

The idea is to imbue chromatic orb’s ability to pick the element, a powerful ability, into a melee attack with similar-ish splash damage. Something akin to dragonbreath’s short range cone felt right.

Current Draft

Chromatic Blade


Level: 2nd

Casting time: 1 Action

Range: 5 feet

Components: V, M (a weapon)

Duration: Instantaneous

Your weapon gleams with incandescent light. You choose acid, cold, fire, lightning, poison, or thunder for the type of glow you create. As part of the action used to cast this spell, you must make a melee attack with a weapon against one creature within the spell’s range, otherwise the spell fails. On a hit, the target suffers the attack’s normal effects and elemental energy of that type bursts forth from your weapon in a 5-foot cone directed at the point of attack.Creatures within the cone’s area of effect take 2d6 damage of the chosen elemental type. This spell’s damage increases when you reach higher levels.

At higher level

When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 3nd level or higher, the damage increases by 1d6 for each slot level above 2nd.

Wording clarifcations for reading purposes

  • “Incandescent” tends to mean “glows from being heated” (like an incandescent lightbulb) and my nearest alternative I could think of was radiant and while I think that’s a better fit semantically, that is already its own damage type (and intentionally not one of the options here to keep in line with chromatic orb). Could just do “chromatic light” but chromatic is just the light spectrum already so that’s lame/nonsense.
  • “directed at the point of attack” is a little awkward but the intent is “from you in the direction of the attack”. Unsure on the best wording there to represent this.
  • “Cone of 5 ft radius”, The intent of the spell is to represent an area like so:
 | | |X|  |O|X|X|  | | |X| 

With the O being the caster, the Xs being the targets. So, the cone would include the hit target of the melee (like green flame blade) and proceed to jump to the 3 adjacent/back tiles (back, diagonal up, diagonal down). If there’s a better way to word that part in general I’d be open to it

Balance considerations

My thinking was that being able to pick your element is a powerful feature of chromatic orb and giving it an AOE effect both warranted it dealing less direct damage than the nearest equivalents (1 casting of chromatic orb and 1 spray of dragonbreath). Math comparisons of similar abilities/attacks/spells:

  • chromatic orb, 1st level, does 3d8 of chosen type to a single target based on spell attack roll (averaging 13.5 on a hit)
  • dragonbreath spell, 2nd level, does 3d6 per breath (average 10.5 per target) but with a save so at least some guaranteed damage (average 5.25 on a save per target) and across a 15-foot cone (bigger area than proposed)
  • dragonbreath character ability, once per short rest and character specific (like from a red dragonborn), does 2d6 of your lineage’s elemental type (average 7 per target) with an associated save for half damage (average 3.5 per target) for a 5-foot cone (same area)
  • scorching ray, 2nd level spell, 3 individual ranged attack rolls for 2d6 fire damage per hit (average 7 per hit)
  • green flame blade, cantrip, melee hit + fire damage on additional creature within 5 ft based on your spell modifier (1-5 realistically)

All of the above scale to include an extra damage die per level, or in the case of green flame blade, being a cantrip, at select player levels.

Alternatives/options speculated

  • Could perhaps use a save for the elemental damage, DEX or CON respective to the element chosen like normal)

    • Pro(s): fits closer to dragonbreath spell’s damage per target (also 2nd level)
    • Con(s): spell already requires a struck melee attack before it does anything and that then means its a roll per target, which I know lots of spells do but just adds to the complexity of the mechanics
  • Could make it just a single additional target within 5ft of the melee attack target.

    • Pro(s): Would make it fit a little closer to Green Flame Blade’s effect
    • Con(s): then the damage at face value seems a little underwhelming being 2d6 per target (though in it’s current form of not needing a secondary save for each target in the cone it’s potentially up to melee weapon + 8d6 damage in total, compared to 6d6 for all 3 rays hitting for scorching ray and you get to pick the damage type for this, though a more realistic situation of melee target + 1 extra is melee + 4d8 chosen damage)
  • Could increase/decrease the damage dealt or increase the range if the damage seems right but maybe not enough AOE (more similarly scoped to dragonbreath spell, also 2nd level)

So… thoughts?

Time complexity of a hybrid merge and selection sort algorithm

I’m trying to analyse the time and space complexity of the following algorithm, which is essentially a hybrid of a merge and selection sort. The algorithm is defined as follows:

def hybrid_merge_selection(L, k = 0):     N = len(L)     if N == 1:         return L     elif N <= k:         return selection_sort(L)     else:         left_sublist = hybrid_merge_selection(L[:N // 2])         right_sublist = hybrid_merge_selection(L[N // 2:])         return merge(left_sublist, right_sublist)  

My thinking is that the worst case scenario occurs when $ k$ is extremely large, which means that the insertion sort algorithm is always applied resulting in a time complexity of $ O(n^{2})$ , where $ n$ is the length of the list and the best case scenario occurs when $ N$ when $ k == 0$ , so the merge sort algorithm is only applied resulting in a time complexity of $ O(n\log_{2}n)$ . However, could somebody give me a more detailed and mathematical explanation of the time complexity, for all scenarios, namely worst, best, average.

How can a player create mutant/ hybrid/ chimera?

What the title says:

I will be playing arcane spellcaster in my next game and my goal is to make a character that will specialize in magically cross-breeding species, creating creatures that are part-something and part-something-else on the fly, summoning cthulu-esque monsters instead of regular outsiders while also being able to curse enemies with mutations. Ideal endgame goal would be to create chimera mount with features of multiple species chosen by me and to mutate my familiar to whatever I see fit.

As far as storytelling goes GM is sold on that concept but as far as game mechanics go we have no idea how to even approach this topic.

So my question is: what are my options? Are there any feats, prestige classes, spells, skills, ANYTHING official that will allow me to do the above?

If there is no official material from DnD 3.5 and Pathfinder 1 I will be more than happy to accept answers from other editions – it’s easy enough to translate and having something is better than nothing, so there’s that.

Only thing that I managed to find is Alienist Prestige Class which is utter garbage, basically only thing it does is change my summons to have alien template instead of outsider one, there are no benefits worth the price of picking this Prestige Class.