Is there more information on the spell Galder’s Tower available from previous editions?

I’m playing 5e, and planning my 3rd level spell acquisitions. I came across the spell Galder’s Tower. The spell description says:

You conjure a two-story tower made of stone, wood, or similar suitably sturdy materials.

It then goes on to describe a few more of the tower’s details such as how rooms are furnished and what happens when you upcast the spell. I’m wondering if this is a ‘new to 5e’ spell, and if it isn’t

Is there more information on the spell Galder’s Tower available from previous editions?

Equivalence of two definitions of mutual information

I am learning quantum computing and as a background study, I am currently learning fundamentals of classical information theory. I thought it best to ask my doubts here. In Nielsen and Chuang, it is stated that mutual information I(X:Y) of two random variables X and Y is the information they have in common while in some books, it is written that mutual information I(X:Y) is the information one variable(say X) has about the other(say Y). I can’t understand it intuitively how the two definitions are equivalent. Also, the symmetric property of mutual information,i.e., I(X:Y)=I(Y:X) is obvious to me from the first definition but not from the second one.

Connection Information To perform the requested action – Is there an easy way to fix this?

It’s been about one year since I created my last WordPress website. I’m using GVO as my host and was able to install WordPress without any problems but when I try to change themes or add plugins I get this message.

Connection Information To perform the requested action, WordPress needs to access your web server. Please enter your FTP credentials to proceed. If you do not remember your credentials, you should contact your web host.

When I enter my ftp information, wordpress says that I have the wrong username/pw or it says that the folder wp-content doesn’t exist.

Is there an easy way to fix this problem in 2020 that doesn’t require having to go into the websites code?

I’ve noticed the same messages with my other GVO websites so I’m also wondering if it’s an issue with their server?

Thank you,


Does PHI need to contain health information PLUS one of the 18 identifiers?

I’ve worked for various healthcare companies and found there’s a wide range of interpretation to what protected HIPAA data is. It should be more cut and dry, but in actual practice it seems to be a little confusing.

My questions:

  1. Can one of the 18 identifiers be PHI by itself, without having any medical information attached to it? For example an first and last name from an EHR system. I have always thought you need some sort of medical information attached with the 18 identifiers to make it PHI, otherwise without the health information, it’s PII. So a first and last name with the diagnosis of diabetes is PHI, but my first and last name is not PHI, only PII.

  2. Does it matter where the information originated from? For example if a person inputs their health information into a healthcare website, say weight and medical condition, is that different from a doctor inputting that same data into their EHR?

  3. The definition states that it’s protected if the covered entity receives the information – but what if the patient gives health information (let’s say weight and medical conditions) to a downstream business associate (with a signed BAA)? I thought HITECH extended liability to downstream associates as if they were the covered entity.

It’s worth posting the definition of protected health information for reference.

Under HIPAA, protected health information is considered to be individually identifiable information relating to the past, present, or future health status of an individual that is created, collected, or transmitted, or maintained by a HIPAA-covered entity in relation to the provision of healthcare, payment for healthcare services, or use in healthcare operations (PHI healthcare business uses). Health information such as diagnoses, treatment information, medical test results, and prescription information are considered protected health information under HIPAA, as are national identification numbers and demographic information such as birth dates, gender, ethnicity, and contact and emergency contact information. PHI relates to physical records, while ePHI is any PHI that is created, stored, transmitted, or received electronically. PHI only relates to information on patients or health plan members. It does not include information contained in educational and employment records, that includes health information maintained by a HIPAA covered entity in its capacity as an employer. PHI is only considered PHI when an individual could be identified from the information. If all identifiers are stripped from health data, it ceases to be protected health information and the HIPAA Privacy Rule’s restrictions on uses and disclosures no longer apply.

Which books contain information about Giovanni ghouls?

I will attend a LARP in about a month, and my role will be a Giovanni ghoul. But I know pretty much nothing about Giovanni besides the fact that they are an Italian criminal syndicate, and I especially don’t know much about their ghouls. How are they chosen? How are they treated?

It’s not MET, gamemasters write their own rules, and I already know what the mechanics will look like. However, I am interested in the plot, and the game hosts have announced that they use the Revised edition as their basis.

Where can I find information about Giovanni as a clan and their ghouls in particular besides their third-edition clan book?

I can read some books in that time, but, probably, not all the books ever published for oWoD, that’s I am asking to narrow my choice.

Decomposition of Mutual Information

I came across a book where the author uses the following property of mutual information:

Let $ X$ ,$ Y$ ,$ Z$ be arbitrary discrete random variables and let $ W$ be an indicator random variable.

$ $ (1)\ \ I[ X : Y \mid Z ] = Pr(W=0) I[ X : Y \mid Z, W=0 ] + Pr(W=1) I[ X : Y \mid Z, W=1 ]\ $ $

I don’t understand why this property holds in general. To show this I was thinking to proceed as follows: \begin{align} I[ X : Y \mid Z ] &= E_z[ I[ X : Y \mid Z = z ]] \ &= E_w[ E_z[ I[ X: Y \mid Z = z]\ |\ W=w ] ] \ &= Pr(W=0)E_z[ I[ X: Y \mid Z = z]\ |\ W=0 ] \ &+ Pr(W=1)E_z[ I[ X: Y \mid Z = z]\ |\ W=1 ]. \end{align} where the second line follows by the law of total expectation. However, this does not seem to be the right approach since it’s not clear to me that $ $ E_z[ I[ X: Y \mid Z = z]\ |\ W=w ] = I[ X : Y \mid Z, W=w ]$ $ holds.

What is the right way to show (1)?

Why ASP.Net Identity sends sensitive information to clients?

As far as I understand, Identity sends to the user an encrypted token with some user information like the user name and expiration date. Then, when a new request arrives to the server, it decrypts it and will have available all the user claims and some other information.

My question is, in case there is no need to send the authetication information to other servers (for example if you are authenticating against another web site) would it be more safe not to send as much information to the user? Perhaps we can just send a large code to the user and then match it with an in memory collection or database.

I know that if someone is able to intercept that code she will be able to also make valid requests, but when the “ticket” expires it will not longer be valid for anyone until making the login process again. However, if that code is compromised there won´t be any other information than that.

I hope I am being clear with my question, if not, please let me know it so I can improve it.

Does Asp.Net Core exposes too much information for required enums that were not supplied?

I have a simple code for an input model:

public class MyClass {     [Required]     public MyEnum? Type { get; set; } } 

Now if I do not send Type as a part of json to the request, I get this error from Web.Api:

“The JSON value could not be converted to System.Nullable`1[MyNamespace.MyClass]. Path: $ .type | LineNumber: 2 | BytePositionInLine: 16.”

This really looks like information exposure to me, though I cannot see any real danger in exactly this information, but still, more that nothing.

Is it of any real concern or is it just fine?

Is there any information on what Bloodroot Grove was before the events of this AL module?

I was looking over the Adventurer’s League module, DDAL09-08 – In the Garden of Evil (Season 9, Descent into Avernus). This adventure concerns a location in Avernus (the first layer of the Nine Hells) called Bloodroot Grove, and the evil unicorn Zhalruban who has been corrupted by the grove.

What I can’t understand is what such a grove was doing in Avernus in the first place. My impression of Avernus is that it’s a blasted wasteland, not somewhere where you would expect to find a grove.

Apparently, it is in some way related to Silvanus, the god of nature:

Clearly Silvanus didn’t decide to put it in Avernus, so how did it get here? Was it “lifted” from somewhere else (such as the Material Plane or the Feywild*), similar to how the town Elturel was taken into Avernus from the Material Plane (from the main adventure)?

* The grove might have once been in the Feywild, since there’s this quote (even though it only explicitly refers to one tree):

I assume it has been corrupted simply because it has been on Avernus for so long, since Silvanus wouldn’t have created it as a corrupted grove initially, so something must have corrupted it, and being on Avernus fits as the cause of the corruption, but that further suggests my theory that it wasn’t located in Avernus to begin with.

Is there any more information whatsoever about Bloodroot Grove and how it came to be on Avernus?