How does the Avatar spell function if my character worships a god that isn’t listed under the spell?

more questions concerning Pathfinder Second Ed, but it’s something that I won’t need the answer to until MUCH later down the road. Right now, I’m about to start a 3rd level campaign centered around upper-class intrigue and pirates, so I figured I’d try playing a Cleric of Ng to fit a setting with implicitly ambiguous morals. However, I’m looking both online and in the physical copy I have of Lost Omens: Gods and Magic and cannot find any mention of what additional benefits you gain for casting the Avatar spell while worshiping this god and its contemporaries in the Eldest Pantheon. In addition, I was ecstatic when I discovered that Grundinnar (the first God I played a Cleric of back in PF1e) was included as a part of the Dwarven Pantheon, but he’s in the same boat as the Eldest since the Avatar spell does not specify either Grundinnar directly or the Dwarven Pantheon in general.

So my question is If a Cleric casts the Avatar Spell and their Deity isn’t listed under its effect, what happens?

Why isn’t there just one “keystone” activation function in Neural Networks?

This article says the following:

Deciding between the sigmoid or tanh will depend on your requirement of gradient strength.

I have seen (so far in my learning) 7 activation functions/curves. Each one seems to be building on the last. But then like the quote above, I have read in many places essentially that "based on your requirements, select your activation function and tune it to your specific use case".

This doesn’t seem scalable. From an engineering perspective, a human has to come in and tinker around with each neural network to find the right or optimal activation function, which seems like it would take a lot of time and effort. I’ve seen papers which seem to describe people working on automatically finding the "best" activation function for a particular data set too. From an abstraction standpoint, it’s like writing code to handle each user individually on a website, independently of the others, rather than just writing one user authentication system that works for everyone (as an analogy).

What all these are papers/articles are missing is an explanation of why. Why can’t you just have one activation function that works in all cases optimally? This would make it so engineers don’t have to tinker with each new dataset and neural network, they just create one generalized neural network and it works well for all the common tasks today’s and tomorrow’s neural networks are applied to. If someone finds a more optimal one, then that would be beneficial, but until the next optimal one is found, why can’t you just use one neural network activation function for all situations? I am missing this key piece of information from my current readings.

What are some examples of why it’s not possible to have a keystone activation function?

It isn’t harvesting results from Google & Yahoo

Hi, I am using 10 proxies from and after adding them I select Bing, Google and Yahoo to harvest the links.

It is only harvesting from Bing while Google and Yahoo have status as ‘Harvesting’ with zero results.
Here is the custom harvester:

These are my settings:

Harvester is set at Custom Harvester

I don’t know what seems to be the issue here

I would appreciate any help in getting started

What should I do about a player who isn’t engaging?

So recently the party I DM for has had to move to playing online (due to covid and social distancing) it started off fine and everyone was having a good time but over the last two sessions one of the players is just refusing to get involved at all.

They will come to the session but then just sit in silence for the entire session.

For example their character was woken up to take watch for a long rest and they just refused to do it, the following session the party got into combat and when asking what everyone rolled for initiative they said they were just going to sit in the cart while everyone else dealt with it.

As the DM I don’t see the point of them attending sessions anymore since they aren’t doing anything but I don’t know how to approach that conversation, any ideas?

Why isn’t it more popular to increase the p (parallelization) parameter of scrypt?

First of all, the understanding I have of the p parameter in scrypt is that it multiplies the amount of work to do, but in such a way that the additional workloads are independent from each other, and can be run in parallel. With the interpretation of p cleared out of the way, why is the recommended value still 1? More generally, why is it a good thing that key stretching algorithms are not parallelizable?

From the point of view of an attacker trying to crack a password, it doesn’t matter whether an algorithm is parallelizable. After all, even if the entire algorithm is sequential, the attacker can just crack several different passwords in parallel.

I understand that scrypt being memory-hard makes it difficult to utilize GPUs for cracking. GPUs have a much greater combined computational power accross its many weak cores than CPUs, but the memory bus is about the same speed, so it levels the ground for authentic users on a CPU and attackers on a GPU.

However, subdividing an scrypt workload that accesses 256MB of RAM into 4 different parallel scrypt workloads, accessing 64MB each, would still consume the same amount of memory bandwidth for an attacker, therefore running at the same throughput, while running 4 times faster on a quad+ core CPU for an authentic user.

Is there any fundamental flaw in my logic? Why is the recommended value for p still p = 1? Is there any downside I can’t see to increasing p?

Why isn’t SAT in coNP?

I understand why NP=coNP if SAT is in coNP (How do I prove that SAT in coNP implies NP=coNP?).

But I’m missing why the following machine doesn’t turing recognize the complementary of SAT:

Given a turing machine M that recognizes SAT, the following turing machine recognizes coSAT:

  1. Run M on the input word w.
  2. If M accepts – reject.
  3. If M rejects – accept.

Because coSAT is the language of all unsatisfiable formulas, a formula is unsatisfiable if it doesn’t have a satisfiable interpretation, which is exactly the opposite of what M outputs.

What am I missing in here?

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Understanding why this buffer overflow attack isn’t working

I’m doing a buffer overflow challenge, and I can’t understand what exactly I’m doing wrong. Through debugging, I managed to figure out how my input should look like such that I can force the program to return to a function. From gdb I figured if I entered “aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaacdefbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb” I can get the program to return to cdef of 0x66656463. Here’s a sc just in case: enter image description here As you can see, the program managed to go to 0x66656463. Now I the function’s address through gdb and I tried placing this in cdef’s spot in little endian order using pwntools:

payload = "a" * 28 + "\x56\x85\x04\x08" + "b"*47 msg = "-1\n" + payload  io.sendline(msg) 

The reason for the “-1\n” is because the program asks for input twice: the first time I just enter -1 and then the second input I try the exploit. So far, I’m just getting a segfault and the address I want to jump to should be starting a shell for me to exploit. I’m not sure what exactly I’m doing wrong, and any help would be appreciated. If I had to guess it’s that I’m somehow dealing with the two inputs incorrectly (they’re being read via fgets() in C if that matters.)

EDIT: I have the source binary and I tried running it locally. I created the following txt file

-1 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaV\x85\x04\x08bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb 

and I redirect it in gdb via

run < <(cat input.txt) 

this works the same but whenever I add an escaped hex in place of the cdef, I get a different seg fault at a different address: enter image description here

It looks like if I replace any of the cdef with an escaped hex, I get a segfault at 0x08048726. Is something wrong with passing in the bytes?