From what items can a wizard learn his spells?

I’m now wondering after googling for a while, what are the different sources a Wizard can learn his spells from? Is it only limited to scrolls and tomes, or can a Wizard learn spells from other magic items?

The following quotes are from the PHB, page 114 Your spellbook

You might find other spells during your adventures. You could discover a spell recorded on a scroll in an evil wizard’s chest, for example, or in a dusty tome in an ancient library.

Copying a Spell into the Book When you find a wizard spell of 1st level or higher, you can add it to your spellbook if it is of a level for which you have spell slots and if you can spare the time to decipher and copy it.

For each level of the spell, the process takes 2 hours and costs 50gp. The costs represents material components you expend as you experiment with the spell to master it, as well as the fine inks you need to record it. Once you have spent this time and money, you can prepare the spell just like your other spells.

The way this is worded and considering the few examples we’re given, shouldn’t it be possible to learn a spell from more than just written sources?

An example would be Wand of Magic Missile: would it be possible for a Wizard to learn the spell Magic Missile by studying the spell when used by the item and write down his research and thus learning how to use the spell on his own and eventually master it?

Are there rules for combining generic variant magic items?

For example: Adamantine armor is an uncommon generic armor variant. +1 armor is a rare variant. Is there such a thing as +1 adamantine plate armor? What’s its rarity?

Does the situation change when one of the item "bases" is a generic variant, but the other isn’t? For example, javelin of lightning is a specific uncommon magic weapon. +1 is a generic uncommon modifier to weapons. What about a +1 javelin of lightning?

Is there any leeway with choosing my starting items if I’m starting at a level higher than 1?

I’m preparing a Cleric for a Pathfinder 2nd Ed campaign and reached a bit of an impasse. Going by Table 10-10, my character should have one permanent 2nd level item, 2 permanent 1st level items and 25GP of other funds. The problem is that the 1st level items are either redundant (everburning torch and dull aeon stone) or are unusable for my character (Heavy Armors). Considering these factors, I have a few questions:

1) Can a selection of a permanent item be exchanged for multiple selections of consumable items of the same level? If so, how many?

2) Can you take a lump sum of GP instead of a permanent item? If so, how much?

What does “(any sword)” mean in terms of Magic Items?

In the Dungeon Master’s Guide section for Magic Items (Chapter 7), a lot of items have a requirement that says (any ___), specifically weapons and maybe armor if I remember correctly. For example, Flame Tongue says: “Weapon (any sword)”. Is this just to classify what the Item can be, or can you use another Magic Item in this place? Personally, I think a Vicious, Flame Tongue, Dragon Slayer, Vorpal Sword would be dope, but I’m not sure if that would work.

How do I depower overpowered magic items without breaking immersion?

At one point my party cleric found a magic item that allowed him to pull anything smaller than the item out of it, like a Star Trek replicator. Now nothing is a challenge for him anymore. How would I make the item less powerful without just saying “your item is now less powerful” and breaking the immersion of the game by violating continuity?

When do magical items require saving throws?

When do magical items require saving throws?

For example, suppose a fighter with a ring of protection +2 is hit with a fireball. I see three possibilities:

A) The ring needs a save only if it’s not worn B) The ring needs a save if the character fails their save C) The ring needs a save regardless because it was exposed to magical fire

Which of these applies?

How do I filter out items on DnDBeyond that have no cost?

I’m trying to filter equipment items on DnDBeyond so that only items whose value is between 1 cp and 1 gp is shown.

The problem is that this is giving me a lot of items that have zero cost. I tried the entering the following values for the minimum cost but none are valid:

  • 1 cp
  • 1 copper
  • .01

I can’t find any sort of key that helps with this. Is there a way to filter out items without a cost and what is it?