Is there a way to repeatedly make yourself incapacitated, while it’s not your turn?

A lot of player ‘Companions’ (like the Beast and Drake (UA) companion for the Ranger, or the Homunculus Servant or Steel Defender for the artificer) can act more freely if you are incapacitated.

Is there a way of repeatedly imposing that condition on yourself, while it’s not your turn?

The closest I’ve come to it, is triggering your own Tomb of Levistus warlock invocation. But that is not repeatable.

Peace Cleric’s Emboldening Bond: can the 1d4 be rolled more than once per turn, if it’s only used once?

The Peace Cleric’s Emboldening Bond feature can temporary bond creatures together. The effect is as follow

While any bonded creature is within 30 feet of another, the creature can roll a d4 and add the number rolled to an attack roll, an ability check, or a saving throw it makes. Each creature can add the d4 no more than once per turn.

The text specifies that the 1d4 can be added once per turn.

However, can it be rolled more than once?

For example, suppose I have extra attack, miss, and roll 1 on the 1d4. Could I choose not to add the result of the 1d4 for the first attack, and instead roll it again and add it to the second attack?

Does the Doppelganger apply bonus damage from it’s Surpise Attack feature twice?

The Doppelganger gets extra damage if it surprises an enemy and hits it.

Surprise Attack. If the doppelganger surprises a creature and hits it with an attack during the first round of combat, the target takes an extra 10 (3d6) damage from the attack.

Since the Doppelganger gets 2 attack per round, if it hits with both attacks during the first round, will it add the bonus damage on each attack?

If someone attacks a swarm with a single-target spell while it’s in a character’s space, is that character also affected by the spell?

My players have walked into a Spider Lair and fought their first group of Spiderlings, or effectively a Swarm of Spiders from the MM. I didn’t realize until after the encounter that they have a reach of 0 for their attack and that they can move through and stay on a space taken up by another creature (which occurred to me is the only way it can actually make its attack.) The party’s going to fight more next session.

What happens when a swarm is in a character’s space attacking them, and someone casts a single-target spell against that swarm such as Hellish Rebuke or Fire Bolt?
Since the swarm is invading that character’s space (we assume because they are swarming around them or over them), is the character also potentially affected by the spell?

Is Deluge safe to use still when it’s not been updated since the first part of 2017?;O=D

The latest version of Deluge for Windows that can actually be downloaded and installed is deluge-1.3.15-win32-py2.7.exe from 2017-05-12.

That’s well over three years ago now!

They have been discussing the problems of releasing the new version for years, but nothing comes from it. Like so many slowly dying (but never quite gone) projects I’ve painfully witnessed in the last many years.

Doesn’t this more than likely make it extremely unsafe for me to be running this software on my machine? I feel as if it’s an open door to my machine, almost certainly containing unpatched exploits.

Yet the sad reality is that there are no alternatives. uTorrent is an ad-infested spyware nightmare since many years, and others… well, just like with browsers, I’ve given up on searching because there’s just nothing out there. Nobody seems to care one bit about the entirely desktop computer anymore.

Can I still use this ancient software? If so, how much longer?

Finding the most frequent element, given that it’s Theta(n)-frequent?

We know [Ben-Or 1983] that deciding whether all elements in an array are distinct requires $ \Theta(n \log(n))$ time; and this problem reduces to finding the most frequent element, so it takes $ \Theta(n \log(n))$ time to find the most frequent element (assuming the domain of the array elements is not small).

But what happens when you know that there’s an element with frequency at least $ \alpha \cdot n$ ? Can you then decide the problem, or determine what the element is, in linear time (in $ n$ , not necessarily in $ 1/\alpha$ ) and deterministically?

Does the spell erupting earth disrupt the surface it’s cast on?

The spell Erupting Earth says:

A fountain of churned earth and stone erupts in a 20-foot cube centered on that point.

Does this mean about 20 cubic feet of material from the ground is churned up and disrupted? Or is the fountain comprised of newly created or summoned material?

RAW the spell only deals damage to creatures and makes the terrain difficult. My player is wanting to use the spell to damage stone and dislodge a deposit of ore, arguing the ‘erupting‘ wording means it should deal damage to the terrain as well.

If it churns up material from the ground I can see this working, however, if the material is created by the spell, then that would explain why it doesn’t explicitly damage objects/terrain.

What is the correct or intended interpretation?