Is there a mechanic for a PC to learn the relative strength of an opponent, stat-wise?

TL;DR: It would be realistic for a PC to be able to evaluate how mechanically strong their opponent is, but I couldn’t find any RAW for this. Am I missing something?

Certain skill checks in DnD, like Nature or Religion, allow PCs to learn bits of lore or narrative information about their opponents. Depending on the check result, you can learn about their position in the world, strengths and weaknesses, common knowledge, even types of attack.

However, from what I understand (correct me if I’m wrong), such a check can’t tell the players any mechanical information about the creature – their HP, AC, CR, etc. But in a game as combat-oriented as DnD, knowing an opponent’s stats, or at least how they relate to yours, is vital to make an informed decision on how to proceed with this interaction – behave recklessly, cautiously, etc.

Imo, it’s not unreasonable to wish to be able to evaluate your opponent. After all, IRL by looking at someone you can get a general understanding of how dangerous they’d be in a fight. In some marginal cases looks can be deceiving, but on average – you’d know who can kick whose ass.

In DnD, however, where we have CR5 trolls and CR16 snake-girls (Marilith), PCs can’t base their decisions on the looks of the opponent. But, realistically speaking, living in this world they should know how to evaluate someone’s relative strength.

So, how can I let my players know the power gap between them and the other creatures?

What could prevent a vampire to learn magic related disciplines?

In my actual campaign of Vampire the Masquerade, I actualy made a SPC that know all discipline except all magics related discipline (Blood magic, necromancy, etc…).

As I created it, this made me wonder “What could prevent a vampire to learn magic related disciplines?”

Any edition book can be use to answer, it’s just a curiosity (and maybe to re-use it in other campaign).

What happens when a Mystic runs out of disciplines to learn?

The most recent version (v3) of the Mystic class from Unearthed Arcana can be found here.

The Order of the Nomad gets 2 additional disciplines at 1st level from the “Bonus Disciplines” feature, meaning that all of the Nomad disciplines are unlocked by level 5.

However, at level 7 and above, the number of disciplines known increases further for all mystics. Normally, I would think that the mystic simply would unlock nothing, but at level 20, the sheet says that all mystics know 8 disciplines, which is more than any one order has.

What do you do if your mystic has learned all the disciplines for an order, but is still able to learn more disciplines?

Is it crucial for a UX designer to learn the principles of Object Oriented Programming?

As a designer and sometimes coder myself, I have been exposed to the idea and principles behind Object Oriented Programming, and having a knowledge in this area definitely helps when it comes to conceptualizing screens for proposed software applications. Developers would immediately get the gist of the screens.

I’m curious though if the knowledge of a designer of OOP would have a big impact when it comes to User Experience Design? What kind of scenarios would it be a huge factor in the effectiveness of a design? Are there any instances where it is?

Is it crucial for a UX designer to learn the principles of Object Oriented Programming?

As a designer and sometimes coder myself, I have been exposed to the idea and principles behind Object Oriented Programming, and having a knowledge in this area definitely helps when it comes to conceptualizing screens for proposed software applications. Developers would immediately get the gist of the screens.

I’m curious though if the knowledge of a designer of OOP would have a big impact when it comes to User Experience Design? What kind of scenarios would it be a huge factor in the effectiveness of a design? Are there any instances where it is?

Will enemies with Wizard spells have spellbooks a PC Wizard can learn from?

I’m aware that Wizards can learn spells from other spellbooks and scrolls they find, as long as they take the time and money to learn it. If there is an enemy, such as a Mage that is listed in the Hoard of the Dragon Queen supplement, that is listed as a caster and said to have Wizard Spells, does this mean we can assume they are a Wizard class and they have to have a spellbook? Is there any chance a PC Wizard could learn the spells off this defeated enemy?

How can I learn spells that are not in the druid spell list without multiclassing or taking feats? [on hold]

I am a spore druid, as I saw in my spell circles I can learn some spells that are not in the druid spell list, is there any way my druid can learn more spells outside my class without multiclassing or taking feats?

Also, what are some good spells for druids that do not require concentration? At least 75% of them require concentration (I have level 3 spells right now) and I need some good ranged ones.