looking for a way to protect myself against divination with the least amount of ressources

I am a fairly high-level wizard. I could learn mind blank or nondetection, or use an amulet of protection against detection and location, But 8th level slots are too valuable, burning 25gp every day is annoying, and I don’t want to use an attunement slot on this. Is there anything that I can do? I was thinking of using the simulacrum of a monster or summoning and binding an outsider with the right ability, but the simulacrum ability would have to be at-will or not be a spell because simulacrums don’t get spells back, and the summoned outsider must be cr 9 or less. Is there anything in the monster manual that would fit? Or any other solution I could use?

How does the Detect Magic spell see any creature that knows at least one cantrip? [duplicate]

The detect magic spell states (emphasis mine):

you sense the presence of magic within 30 feet of you. If you sense magic in this way, you can use your action to see a faint aura around any visible creature or object in the area that bears magic

And the definition of a cantrip in the PH is (emphasis mine):

A cantrip i s a spell that can be cast at will […]. Repeated practice has fixed the spell in the caster’s mind and infused the caster with the magic needed to produce the effect over and over.

Is a visible creature that knows and can cast at least one cantrip detected as "bearing magic" by the spell detect magic?

Proof that $\{0|1\}^*0\{0|1\}^n$ requires at least $2^{n+1}$ states

How can you prove that any DFA accepting the language generated by the regular expression $ \{0|1\}^*0\{0|1\}^n$ requires at least $ 2^{n+1}$ states?

I first attempted induction on $ n$ . But I don’t even see how to prove the base-case, like if $ n=1$ . You need the DFA to take any string and, when it encounters a 0, get set down a track of checking that $ n$ characters follow. If it’s fewer than $ n$ then fine you reject. But if there are more characters, to sort of re-set it so that it looks for the first 0 after the earlier one was found. But DFAs don’t have that kind of memory.

And once you’ve established the base-case, the inductive case doesn’t seem clear either. If you know the result is true up to $ n$ , then if you consider the regex with $ n+1$ then you get a DFA which accepts it. You intuitively want to remove the accepting states and "move them back" one vertex in the graph. Now you have a DFA with at least $ 2^n$ states. But how do you know that you needed $ 2^n$ accepting states so that the net number of accepting states is then $ 2^{n+1}$ ?

A player rolls four 20-sided dice, takes the lowest value, ignores the rest. What is the probability of this value at least 7?

I’m designing a tabletop game, and I need to figure out how to calculate a few probabilities:

  1. Roll 3 20-sided dice, take the highest value. What is the probability of it being 7 or higher? 15 or higher?
    1. Roll 4 20-sided dice, take the highest value. What is the probability of it being 7 or higher? 15 or higher?
    1. Roll 3 20-sided dice, take the lowest value. What is the probability of it being 7 or higher? 15 or higher?
    1. Roll 4 20-sided dice, take the lowest value. What is the probability of it being 7 or higher? 15 or higher?

How can I do this? Could you explain to me how this works, or even better – give me a simple formula?

Where can i download a benign PE dataset? or at least which website is the best candidate for crawling and downloading normal executables? [closed]

I’m planning to gather a benign dataset for my ML malware detection model

the problem I’m having is finding benign PE files, i just need a source that has a dataset of normal executables, i will scan them with VT and extract benign ones, but i cant find anything useful

if there is nothing out there, then at least what is the best website that has the potential to be useful for a PE downloader crawler? (meaning its easy to crawl and automatically download .exe files without running into problems)

also another problem of using a download website is Installers, considering most of their files are installer and i need to install the program first, is there any good solution to this? is there any AutoIT script that somehow can install all types of installers ?

(I tried looking at surveys on using ML in malware detection like [1], but seems like non of the papers have released any useful benign dataset other than simple windows files which anyone can gather and is less than 10k, and very small amounts like 1000, i need to gather a large benign dataset, more than 50,000 benign files because my malware dataset is really large)

[1] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167404818303808

checking whether turing machine passes at least k>2 states before accepting a word

$ L=\{<M,k>|\exists\,\,w\in L(M)\,\,such\,\,that\,\,M\,\,passes\,\,at\,\,least\,\,k>2\,\,distinct\,\,states\,\,before\,\,accepting\,\,w\}$

I try to think of reduction to prove that this language is neither RE nor coRE. How to approach this problem? Is there a hint, or intuition?

I usually check whether Rice can be used, but the question here is not about the language itself

Applying “principle of least privilege” when it comes to execs and owners of the company – should they automatically get all permissions if requested?

As an administrator of certain systems in a company I understand and adhere to the “principle of least privilege” — which I’m assuming I don’t need to repeat its definition here, so let’s just say people here get given access to systems only in accordance with what they need for their role and no more. I follow that principle and check carefully whether they can have read-only access in order to carry out the role and if so I give read access only, etc.

I had a request from an executive-level (C-suite) person (“Jack”, let’s say) who is actually one of the five co-owners of the company, to get blanket “sysadmin” level access to a particular system. (I am confident the request has come from Jack himself and isn’t a hacking or phishing attempt, as I verified it with Jack directly.)

Jack is far too important and involved with strategic stuff to need to carry out any day-to-day work with this system, especially anything that would need sysadmin level access, but occasionally wants to get involved in “poking around” in there, as he is technical by background.

I get the sense that he doesn’t like the idea that he is “walled off” from some system although he owns part of the company.

I’m not asking about the interpersonal aspects about this, just the info-sec ones.

Is it accepted info-sec practice to give an owner of the company “sysadmin” access and by doing bypass the “principle of least privilege”? — since, after all, Jack (partly) owns the company so it’s all his stuff anyway!

Or should that still apply, and even the CEO shouldn’t have write-access to a system when they don’t need it as part of their job function?