What is the highest average damage that a level 10 character can deal in response to being hit or damaged?


Typically, you deal damage by hitting the other guy with a stick (or a fireball) [citation needed]; however, spells like fire shield damage enemies who hit you:

In addition, whenever a creature within 5 feet of you hits you with a melee attack, the shield erupts with flame. The attacker takes 2d8 fire damage from a warm shield, or 2d8 cold damage from a cold shield.

Similarly, hellish rebuke allows you to damage enemies in response to them damaging you. Either way, the enemy wouldn’t have taken damage if they chose to just ignore you. This leads to my question: what is the highest average damage that a level 10 character can deal in response to being hit or damaged?



  • Level 10.
  • May use the PHB and one of the following: EE, MToF, SCAG, VGtM, or XGtE. This restriction extends to spells, as well. (If the spell is one your build allows you to copy from a scroll or spellbook, however, you may pick it from any of those sources.)
  • No variant rules besides multiclassing, feats, and variant human.
  • Up to three magic items from DMG Tables F or G with a maximum rarity of Rare.


  • Four encounters; Combat 1, Combat 2, Short Rest, Combat 3, Combat 4 (each of these events is separated by 30 minutes). The Short Rest is mandatory.
  • Each combat encounter has you face off against two earth elementals. These elementals do not have any damage vulnerabilities, damage immunities, or condition immunities. They keep their damage resistances.
  • Each combat lasts three rounds. All participants get a turn in each round.
  • Enemies move next to the PC and attack normally.
  • Enemies do not make opportunity attacks.
  • For the sake of simplicity, treat enemies and the PC as if they had infinite health.
  • You may not use the Ready action. (Mainly to prevent "I ready blight for when I get damaged" from being the best answer.)
  • Any spell or ability that lasts 10 minutes or longer may be activated before entering combat. Any spell or ability that lasts longer than 8 hours may be activated the day before.
  • You may not spend more than 100 gp on spells that consume costly material components. (So casting identify and find familiar is fine, because identify doesn’t consume its costly component, but casting glyph of warding is not.)
  • You never lose concentration as a result of taking damage.
  • Allies cannot help you, unless you summon/create them yourself (via conjure animals, animate dead, etc.)

Damage calculation

  • Damage should be the average damage per round over the course of the adventuring day.
  • Only count damage dealt to enemies (the earth elementals) in direct response to, and in the same turn as, being hit or damaged. Hellish rebuke is fine. The extra damage dealt by absorb elements is not. You may still deal damage in other ways (in case it’s necessary for setup), you just can’t count it in the total.

Hradening WMI: Any security benefit to changing Impersonation level?

Does changing the Default Impersonation Level in Windows machines to 2 or 1 help mitigate against WMI exploitation?

wbemImpersonationLevelAnonymous 1     Moniker: Anonymous Hides the credentials of the caller. Calls to WMI may fail with this impersonation level. wbemImpersonationLevelIdentify 2     Moniker: Identify Allows objects to query the credentials of the caller. Calls to WMI may fail with this impersonation level. wbemImpersonationLevelImpersonate 3     Moniker: Impersonate Allows objects to use the credentials of the caller. This is the recommended impersonation level for Scripting API for WMI calls. wbemImpersonationLevelDelegate 4     Moniker: Delegate Allows objects to permit other objects to use the credentials of the caller. This impersonation will work with Scripting API for WMI calls but may constitute an unnecessary security risk. 

How do you level an atypical Follower?

In my last game (and also my first game as a DM), one of my players earned the loyalty of a Giant Goat (MM pg 326) by freeing it from its cell, avenging the death of its brothers by slaying a bridge troll, and reviving it back to life after it had been knocked out.

I’m not sure how I want to handle leveling from here on out. At first I considered using the Animal Companion system as a framework, but this goat is sentient and has its own bonds, so instead I’ve decided that using the Follower system as a base will be more relevant. However, the Follower system, as I understand it, assumes the follower is simply a low-level PC class. Because this follower is a beast and does not have a class, I’m not entirely sure how I should level up the goat throughout the campaign.

My initial idea is use the normal experience chart, starting at second level (chosen primarily/arbitrarily based on its HP of 19, it just seems like an appropriate starting point). It will share encounter experience with the party. If it levels, it will gain more HP using a d10 hit die plus its CON. It will also gain proficiency bonus at the appropriate levels. I don’t think I will allow stat increases, and certainly not PHB feats.

Besides HP and proficiency, the only ways to increase the goat’s efficacy will be through gear, which will require the player character to spend a lot of resources to commission an expert blacksmith to (1) study goat anatomy (2) build something that a goat could use. I also reserve the right to create a "class" feature if the story has earned it.

Those are my ideas. How do I keep the goat from being too strong but still rewarding the player character’s investment?

Does a rest remove ALL chase-induced exhaustion or just ONE level?

Most exhaustion can be removed by a long rest, food, and drink (PHB 251)

Finishing a long rest reduces a creature’s exhaustion level by 1, provided that creature has also ingested some food and drink.

Exhaustion caused by dashing while in a chase, however, is removed by a short OR long rest, with nothing else required. (DMG 252)

A creature can remove the levels of exhaustion it gained during the chase by finishing a short or long rest.

I understand that a short rest alone can remove chase exhaustion.

What I don’t understand is whether one rest removes multiple levels of exhaustion or just one. That is, is the second quote above more explicitly written as:

  1. A creature can remove ALL the LEVELS of exhaustion it gained during the chase by finishing a SINGLE short or long rest.


  1. A creature can remove ONE of the LEVELS of exhaustion it gained during the chase for EACH short or long rest that it finishes.

Does a Wizard copying a spell count as one of their two new spells for a level?

In D&D 5E Wizards get an additional two spells per level to add to their spellbook:

Each time you gain a wizard level, you can add two wizard spells of your choice to your spellbook.

If a Wizard has a handful of Scrolls and another Wizard’s spellbook they have found while adventuring, can they attempt to scribe them all (assuming they are of the necessary spell level and have the time and money to do so), or are they limited to 2 new spells per level?

Can a Circle of the Stars druid fire an arrow from its star form and cast a spell of 1st level or higher during the same turn?

The druid subclass Circle of the Stars from Unearthed Arcana: Subclasses, Part 3 has the 2nd-level feature Starry Form, part of the description of which states:

You gain a bonus action that you can use to make a ranged spell attack, hurling a luminous arrow that targets a creature you can see within 60 feet of you. On a hit, the attack deals radiant damage equal to 1d8 + your Wisdom modifier.

Does “making a ranged spell attack” count as casting a spell and therefore limit your action to a cantrip or can you cast a spell of first level or higher because the arrow is not a spell? Could I cast one of the freely available Guiding Bolts and fire an arrow or do I have to stick with something like frostbite and an arrow?

Acceptable background by level

Disclaimer: This has nothing to do with backgrounds from DND5.

It happens a lot that the story you create for your character sometimes is not as in point with what happens afterwards in-game. If you are a Lvl 1 Warrior you maybe can say you fought in the frontlines of a bloody war, and now are a retired mercenary.

Then you end-up losing to a bunch of rats the GM threw your way because the ceiling was too low and you forgot your matches.

What I want to know, is there a table/resource that has some indicator of what you may have accomplished when creating a character of a specific level?

That way I won’t embarrass myself narrating when I defeated a lich in my Lvl3 Ranger backstory, just to be inmediately destroyed by two goblins and their pet wolf in my first encounter.

I don’t mind DND/pathfinder responses, even when the power level may differ between the two, and even between versions, I’m more interested if the resource itself exists, or how to create one.

How do I balance game interactions between a giant mecha that can level cities and its pilot?

I have had recurring trouble with a subject I like, and would like to implement into my games, but can’t find a good way to do so: mechas (big huge robots)

From a system point of view, it is usually quite easy: just a big suit of armor with specific weapons. The pilot has to be inside to be able to use it, and it is too big to use just anywhere. Most systems can allow it.

However, I can’t find a good game balance for it. The main problem is that the whole “normal person when outside the suit / super-destruction-machine when inside the suit” makes too much of a difference in-game. For example, any challenge when the pilot is outside the suit is a trifle when in the suit; while any challenge for the suit is impossible for the pilot. It ends up feeling like playing two games at the same time: the mechas’ game, and the pilots’ game.

I have tried reducing the difference between the pilot and suits (making the pilots stronger and/or the suits weaker), but then the suits have almost no use, and the players end up almost never using them.

I have tried mainly in BESM (since it is already implemented), D&D, and even tried to develop my own system (with Mecha/pilot classes and perks). I’m looking for a Gundam/Front Mission style, i.e. mechas are big and powerful, can potentially be destroyed by well-equipped and organized infantry, but are mainly in their own world (mecha vs mecha)

So the question is: how would you balance a game focused on mechas?

Can I build my level 6 Ranger so that his bow shots never miss? [closed]

Is it possible for me to make my Human ranger like Hawkeye, to where (1) I never miss and (2) I can use my Sharpshooter ability every shot. I’m currently a level 6 ranger.

I want it so that the only reason for rolling the d20 is to see if my bow breaks.

My DM doesn’t have any other punishments when I roll a 1, so when I roll a 1 my bow can break.

Drawback of Multi Level Encryption

I am backing up my files to a RAID mirrored HDD, that has full disk encryption (FDE) in place with LUKS. Until now I did this with rsync, but I recently switched to a new backup program that does file level encryption as well.

So my question is: Is there any drawback of having multi levels of encryption, or is it actually an advantage? A drawback I can maybe think of would be managing two keys and forgetting one of them would potentially make my backup completely useless.