Can you cast Call Lightning while submerged underwater? [duplicate]

We are running an underwater campaign where everyone is an aquatic race, and most of the campaign will take place completely underwater. Call Lightning says:

"A storm cloud appears in the shape of a cylinder that is 10 feet tall with a 60-foot radius, centered on a point you can see within range directly above you. The spell fails if you can’t see a point in the air where the storm cloud could appear (for example, if you are in a room that can’t accommodate the cloud)."

Does this literally mean you must be able to see a point "in the air", or could this work beneath the waves?

How to deal lightning damage with a tempest domain cleric?

Tempest domain clerics get the following feature at 6th level:

Thunderous Strike. At 6th level, when you deal lightning damage to a Large or smaller creature, you can also push it up to 10 feet away from you.

I’m a bit confused as to how this is useful. As far as I can tell, there are no ways to deal lightning damage to enemies as a normal cleric and tempest clerics get a single spell from their class spell list that can do it, Call lightning. And while that is not a bad spell, it seems weird to have a class feature for a single spell.

So what are some other ways a pure tempest domain cleric could deal lightning damage? Any magic items? From the race? Something else?

Who or what does the lightning damage from a Javelin of Lightning?

This question asks about ways for a Tempest cleric to use their Thunderous Strike class feature.

Thunderous strike says (emphasis mine):

Thunderous Strike. At 6th level, when you deal lightning damage to a Large or smaller creature, you can also push it up to 10 feet away from you.

One answer suggests various magic items, including a wand of lightning bolts and javelin of lightning.

The wand grants you the ability to cast a spell, and your spell means it is you doing the damage.

It is not as clear to me that this is the case with the javelin, however (emphasis mine):

When you hurl it and speak its Command Word, it transforms into a bolt of lightning, forming a line 5 feet wide that extends out from you to a target within 120 feet. Each creature in the line excluding you and the target must make a DC 13 Dexterity saving throw, taking 4d6 lightning damage on a failed save, and half as much damage on a successful one. The lightning bolt turns back into a javelin when it reaches the target. Make a ranged weapon attack against the target. On a hit, the target takes damage from the javelin plus 4d6 lightning damage.

By standard use of "you do damage", the weapon damage from the javelin itself is done by the person who throws it. But if the javelin is transforming itself to cause the lightning damage, is that damage still done by "you" (the thrower) in a way that would trigger Thunderous Strike, or is it rather done by the javelin, and independent of the thrower?

Related: What is damage you do vs. damage a creature takes?

Damage Output of Lightning Recovery (Tome of Battle Maneuver)

Lightning Recovery is a Tome of Battle maneuver that allows a reroll on an attack d20 if it misses, along with an additional +2 on the second attempt. How can I calculate the value of the damage added per round? Here are some figures we can use:

Rapier Attack: +10/+5
Base Damage: 1d6+2
Extra feat damage: 2d6
Critical: 18/x2
Battle Ardor (warblade ability): +2 to confirm critical threat
Target AC: 20

How much damage per round does the use of this maneuver Lightning Recovery add? I’m guessing it’s an array of spread due to the 5e ‘advantage’-like nature of the maneuver mechanic? Could that even be averaged?

What happens to lightning spells underwater?

As the old adage goes “water and electricity don’t mix” because in real life water has impurities in it that make it super conductible. So what would happen in D&D if, for instance, a sorceress cast shocking grasp on a creature underwater?

Would the spell not work? Would it affect the caster as well? Would it spread and hit everything under water?

Shocking grasp in particular specifies that “You have advantage if the target is wearing metal armor” which indicates that they are taking conductivity into account.

What about call lightning or chain lightning, would casting a higher level spell change the outcome?

Is a wand of lightning bolts made of metal?


Question:

Can my druid character use "heat metal" against a "wand of lightning bolts" to make it damage the caster unless it is dropped, or potentially even damage the wand itself (melt solder or metal-contacting thermosetting adhesives)?

Background:

Here is a link describing the wand:
https://www.dndbeyond.com/magic-items/wand-of-lightning-bolts

It says that the wand makes an effect like the spell "lighting bolt".

Here is the description for lightning bolt: https://www.dndbeyond.com/spells/lightning-bolt

Here are other lightning-related magic items that might give hints about the construction:

  • https://www.dndbeyond.com/magic-items/staff-of-thunder-and-lightning
  • https://www.dndbeyond.com/magic-items/javelin-of-lightning

Thoughts:

The material components are "a bit of fur and a rod of amber, crystal, or glass".

  • The wand is potentially likely to connect some part of the material component to a handle, and in jewelry many gem-holding elements are soldered grips with metal. Heat metal might hit the solder and damage the wand causing a magical discharge in that case.
  • If the components are organic, like a glue or plant-based adhesive with a wooden handle, then heat metal might be totally ineffective.

I did not see any questions along this line on this forum.

Is it possible to combo the spells Create and Destroy Water, Shape Water, and Lightning Bolt in order to make LB more powerful?

Asking on behalf of the group’s Wizard. He wants to electrocute the BBEG and have the spell deal extra damage through clever use of game mechanics. As a DM, I am all for it, as long as the rules somehow support it.

Create Water. You create up to 10 gallons of clean water within range in an open container. Alternatively, the water falls as rain in a 30-foot cube within range,* (PHB pg. 229)

Is this something you could cast, and either cast Lightning Bolt (8d6dmg) on the target being rained on(on your next turn / action), or use Shape Water to form a cube around the BBEG, and then Lightning Bolt to the face?

I personally think something being wet is conductive, which I might say means that the target being rained on would have disadvantage on the saving throw. My player really wants to try and argue that being wet yields a Damage Vulnerability (2x dmg), therefore causing lightning bolt to deal (8d6)*2 lightning damage.

Is there a rule I haven’t found in the PHB about this already? I do really want the player to feel cool, especially since this upcoming week there is a BBEG confrontation and this might turn the tide for my group.

The froghemoth has both lightning resistance and Shock Susceptibility; is this an error? Are there other monsters like this?

In Volo’s Guide to Monsters, the Froghemoth (pg. 145) has resistance to lightning damage, but also has the Shock Susceptibility trait, which gives it various penalties whenever it takes lightning damage.

I find this hard to wrap my mind around from a creature biology standpoint, as well as from a gameplay point of view. Is this a mistake? Is there any precedent for a monster having this dual resistance and vulnerability?