During a long rest if someone is fully rested, can they keep watch longer than 2 hours?

So I am currently running a game with 3 PCs, 2 of which are Elves and 1 a Human. I am just trying to calculate the most efficient way to run watch shifts during long rests since both of the elves only need 4 hour meditation to be considered fully rested.

In the PHB pg 168 in the section about long rests it states that (emphasis mine):

A long rest is a period of extended downtime, at least 8 hours long, during which a character sleeps or performs light activity: reading, talking, eating, or standing watch for no more than 2 hours.

Now my question is, once a character is considered fully rested and no longer needs the “long rest” are they able to keep effective watch for longer than a period of 2 hours? So say that the elves both finish their 4 hours, can they now keep a vigilant watch for the other 4 hours the human PC needs to rest?

Starting with SQL Server 2019, does compatibility level no longer influence cardinality estimation?

In SQL Server 2017 & prior versions, if you wanted to get cardinality estimations that matched a prior version of SQL Server, you could set a database’s compatibility level to an earlier version.

For example, in SQL Server 2017, if you wanted execution plans whose estimates matched SQL Server 2012, you could set the compatibility level to 110 (SQL 2012), and get execution plan estimates that matched SQL Server 2012.

This is reinforced by the documentation, which states:

Changes to the Cardinality Estimator released on SQL Server and Azure SQL Database are enabled only in the default compatibility level of a new Database Engine version, but not on previous compatibility levels.

For example, when SQL Server 2016 (13.x) was released, changes to the cardinality estimation process were available only for databases using SQL Server 2016 (13.x) default compatibility level (130). Previous compatibility levels retained the cardinality estimation behavior that was available before SQL Server 2016 (13.x).

Later, when SQL Server 2017 (14.x) was released, newer changes to the cardinality estimation process were available only for databases using SQL Server 2017 (14.x) default compatibility level (140). Database Compatibility Level 130 retained the SQL Server 2016 (13.x) cardinality estimation behavior.

However, in SQL Server 2019, that doesn’t seem to be the case. If I take the Stack Overflow 2010 database, and run this query:

CREATE INDEX IX_LastAccessDate_Id ON dbo.Users(LastAccessDate, Id); GO ALTER DATABASE CURRENT SET COMPATIBILITY_LEVEL = 140; GO SELECT LastAccessDate, Id, DisplayName, Age   FROM dbo.Users   WHERE LastAccessDate > '2018-09-02 04:00'   ORDER BY LastAccessDate; 

I get an execution plan with 1,552 rows estimated coming out of the index seek operator:

SQL 2017, compat 2017

But if I take the same database, same query on SQL Server 2019, it estimates a different number of rows coming out of the index seek – it says “SQL 2019” in the comment at right, but note that it’s compat level 140:

SQL 2019, compat 2017

And if I set the compatibility level to 2019, I get that same estimate of 1,566 rows:

SQL 2019, compat 2019

So in summary, starting with SQL Server 2019, does compatibility level no longer influence cardinality estimation the way it did in SQL Server 2014-2017? Or is this a bug?

What happens at the moment I no longer meet multiclass prerequisites during gameplay?

Suppose I’ve got a multiclass fighter/cleric with both wisdom and strength of 16. Nice.

I fall victim to a shadow’s strength drain attack. Not nice. I roll a 4 and lose 4 points of strength.


I no longer meet the prerequisite for my multiclass. Do I lose my fighter class features until after my next rest, when that strength comes back?

What happens when it’s time to level up and I no longer meet a multiclass prerequisite?

Suppose I’m playing a multiclass fighter/druid (because that’s how I Range). I’ve got both Wisdom and Dexterity above 13, but Strength’s only 10.

I annoy an efreet, who uses wishes to reduce both my Wisdom and Dexterity to 12. (Because my GM’s a lawyer and knows that I care about the rules, and that this will tie me into knots.)

It’s time to level up, and I don’t meet the prerequisite for either of my classes. Probably don’t meet the prereq for any third class, since I was so focused on Wisdom and Dexterity! Am I stuck until I otherwise raise a stat?

What are the ramifications of making the Battle Master fighter’s Commander’s Strike maneuver no longer require the Attack action?

The Battle Master fighter’s Commander’s Strike maneuver (PHB, p. 74) states:

When you take the Attack action on your turn, you can forgo one of your attacks and use a bonus action to direct one of your companions to strike. When you do so, choose a friendly creature who can see or hear you and expend one superiority die. That creature can immediately use its reaction to make one weapon attack, adding the superiority die to the attack’s damage roll.

However it is currently the only maneuver that actually requires you to take the Attack action. I found this odd, and the rare times that this fact came up, I simply ignored it, allowing it to be used with any sort of attack. I have thus made the following changes as a house rule:

When you make an attack on your turn, you can forgo the attack and use a bonus action to direct one of your companions to strike […]

It would still be limited to one use per turn, as you only have one bonus action on any given turn, but perhaps there is some issue that results from this which I haven’t noticed. What are the ramifications of this change?

Can you maintain a grapple you are no longer capable of initiating?

How do the requirements to maintain a grapple contrast against the requirements for initiating a grapple? For example, if a paladin successfully initiates a grapple against an orc (using one free hand, per the rules), and the paladin subsequently uses both hands to grasp his greatsword to attack, does the orc cease to be Grappled?

In terms of storytelling, this could go either way; either the paladin must keep one hand on the orc, or the paladin is allowed to maintain an already-established grapple by (for example) hooking an arm or leg onto the orc.

The Rules

The rules require a free hand to start a grapple. The mental image is that the orc can’t walk away because the paladin used his hand to grab the orc. This can be intuitively extrapolated into the paladin maintaining the grapple with his hand, but the rules don’t explicitly say that this is what happens.

I added bold italics to the bits I found most important.


When you want to grab a creature or wrestle with it, you can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.

The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you, and it must be within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check, a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition (see appendix A). The condition specifies the things that end it, and you can release the target whenever you like (no action required).

Escaping a Grapple.

A grappled creature can use its action to escape. To do so, it must succeed on a Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by your Strength (Athletics) check.

Moving a Grappled Creature.

When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you. (PHB p.195)

The way I see it, there are two distinct concepts: there’s The Grappling procedure, and there’s the Grappled condition.

The first half of this text is describing the Grappling procedure. For example, this procedure has certain requirements (including a free hand).

Then comes the sentence, “If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition.” This is the connection between the Grappling procedure and the Grappled condition. The Grappling procedure is how you apply the Grappled condition to a target.

The text that comes after “you subject the target to the grappled condition” is about the Grappled condition. I don’t believe the earlier text (about the grappling procedure) applies here– but even if I’m right, the text could have been written more clearly, perhaps by explicitly defining the difference between “Grappling” and “Grappled”.

In case anyone was hoping the “Grappled condition” rules would help clear this up, here’s from Appendix A: Conditions.

A condition lasts either until it is countered (the prone condition is countered by standing up, for example) or for a duration specified by the effect that imposed the condition (PHB p.290).

Note that, in the example given, the Prone condition is distinct from whatever event caused the Prone condition.


  • A grappled creature’s speed becomes 0,and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated (see the condition).
  • The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell. (PHB p.290)

There’s no mention of the grappler losing all free hands, shrinking, or otherwise failing to satisfy grappling’s initial requirements. There is a mention of an incapacitated grappler automatically ending a grapple, but “Incapacitated” is a much more severe status than not having use of a free hand. I have some thoughts on what this means when I read between the lines– but these are game mechanics; if I’m reading between the lines to be able to obey them, I’m probably not providing a true RAW interpretation.

Going back to the paladin grappling an orc at the beginning, my best guess is that he can use his two-handed weapon without any problem, even though it means he can’t start a new grapple until he releases the weapon with one hand. He can also be polymorphed into a mouse and maintain the grapple, even though he won’t be able to initiate a new grapple due to size restrictions.

Do search engines consider the length of longer percent-encoded URLs or shorter non-English character URLs for SEO?

Do search engines consider the length of non-English characters or do they consider the length of percentage-encoded characters for an SEO score?

For example:


I searched here and found related posts are 3 to 7 years old. Is there any update in how popular search engines index URLs with non-English characters?

How to design a chart that has an x-axis with a fixed range that is longer than the selected range?

I’m designing a web-based analytics dashboard that contains a chart in which the x-axis represents the days of a campaign, and it always shows 31 days. However, the duration of a campaign varies; it may be predefined to any period between a single to 31 days.
In cases when the campaign’s duration is shorter than 31 days, I want to make it clear which area of the chart is relevant.
Are there any existing best practice solutions for this scenario?
One idea I have is graying out the area that’s not required (see image below). A bar chart with a 31-days x-axis that shows a 7-days long campaign

The chart’s width is fixed and optimized for displaying a 31-days range. I’m not changing the number of days on the x-axis to avoid scenarios in which there is a single floating dot or bar on the screen or several data points with vast space between them (see images below). A bar chart with a 7-days x-axis that shows a 7-days long campaign A bar chart with a 3-days x-axis that shows a 3-days long campaign

What is the fallout of unarmed strikes no longer being weapons?

In the latest errata for the D&D 5.0 PHB, unarmed strikes apparently ceased to count as weapons, being something you use instead of weapons:


Weapons (p. 149). Unarmed strike doesn’t belong on the weapon table.


Melee Attacks (p. 195). The rule on unarmed strikes should read as follows: “Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage equal to 1 + your Strength modifier. You are proficient with your unarmed strikes.”

Is this a significant change, or just a relatively benign clarification or error-fix, particularly with regards to how it affects Barbarians, Monks, and Brawlers?

Is this a major nerf or empowerment in any way, and if so why? How much does this actually affect characters who fight unarmed — does it break or change a lot, or only a limited obscure amount? Does this break popular character builds? (Is it doing enough I should be letting my players reroll?) If it’s hard to tell how much this affects, I’d be interested to know that as well.

Windows SMB shares no longer accessible in Ubuntu 19.04

Upon returning from a recent trip, my Ubuntu 19.04 autofs no longer mounts the cifs Windows 10 shares. When I click the Windows 10 machine in Nautilus under Other Locations, I get the error, Unable to access location, Failed to retrieve share list from server, Network dropped connection on reset. Does this have to do with SMB v1 and some Windows update? On my android phone, the file manager could also no longer connect to the Windows 10 machine, but after I installed an SMB v2 add-on, the phone can now connect to it. In my Ubuntu smb.conf file, I added min protocol = SMB2, but that did not fix it. Is there a way to get my autofs to mount the cifs shares again? I prefer to not go the fstab route, rather I want to keep using autofs if possible.