BarChart – Maintain ChartElementFunction when changing PlotRange

Here is a BarChart of some data

data = {90, 91, 95, 103, 107, 102, 107, 105, 98, 96}  {90, 91, 95, 103, 107, 102, 107, 105, 98, 96}  BarChart[data, ChartElementFunction -> "GradientScaleRectangle"] 

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When I add PlotRange the color goes away.

BarChart[data, ChartElementFunction -> "GradientScaleRectangle",   PlotRange -> {80, 120}] 

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Is it possible to work around this?

Can a level 16 draconic sorcerer maintain their dragon wings indefinitely?

Draconic sorcerers gain the focus spell Dragon Wings at 5th level:

When the spell is heightened to 8th level, "the duration increases to ten minutes."

If a sorcerer has a focus point at time T, and expends it by casting Dragon Wings, then when do they regain that focus point?

From :

You refill your focus pool during your daily preparations, and you can regain 1 Focus Point by spending 10 minutes using the Refocus activity. Unlike other characters, you don’t need to do anything specific to Refocus, as the power of the blood flowing through your veins naturally replenishes your focus pool.

Does this imply that the sorcerer can’t maintain their wings indefinitely, as (presumably) they would cast the spell in combat, and thus would have some time (e.g. a couple of rounds) where they weren’t engaged in the Refocus activity? I.e. they would start refocusing at some time T + x, where x > 0, and they would only regain the Wings at T + x + 10m ?

I want to say this is correct, but I also like the notion of the sorcerer gaining those wings for as long as they reduce their focus pool by 1, to ‘keep it up’. But I’d appreciate your thoughts.

Can a barbarian maintain rage by attacking a creature that is not present?

Suppose a raging barbarian does not see any opponents on the battlefield but is attempting to maintain rage by attacking a hostile creature, according to the following:

Your rage lasts for 1 minute. It ends early if you are knocked unconscious or if your turn ends and you haven’t attacked a hostile creature since your last turn or taken damage since then.

If there was a successfully Hidden opponent on the field, the barbarian would be permitted to attack it by guessing its location. Even if they were incorrect, that would be sufficient to maintain their rage.

But how far ‘off’ is the barbarian allowed to be in their guess and still have the attack count?

Suppose the successfully Hidden opponent has actually left the field without the barbarian knowing. Does the fact that the opponent is not actually there prevent the barbarian from making an attack on an unseen opponent?

If yes, and the rage ends, the player then gains information about the fact that the opponent is not present (which seems to go against the spirit of "If the target isn’t in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the DM typically just says that the attack missed, not whether you guessed the target’s location correctly.")

If no, and the barbarian is allowed to attack an opponent that is not actually there based on the plausible belief that an opponent is present, then what prevents the barbarian from postulating an opponent who could be there? For example, the barbarian invokes an NPC that has successfully Hidden against the party before – is it enough to maintain rage for the barbarian to say that they believe said NPC is present and Hidden and then attempt to attack them as an Unseen opponent?

Somewhat related: A barbarian’s belief that they are attacking an opponent is not sufficient to maintain rage if what they are attacking is an illusion. So attacking a not-creature that is there is not enough to maintain rage, but is it enough to attack an actual creature that is not there?

Can you maintain concentration through a short rest?

Due to the long duration on Hex, it is clearly intended to function across multiple encounters as described in this answer.

Due to the extended duration, it seems feasible that a warlock could take a short rest to recover their spell slot and thus go into a future combat with a Hex at the ready and a full assortment of spell slots. Is this correct? RAW do not appear to prohibit this.

How long do you need to power an ssd up for to maintain the data on it, and is it the OS or the drive that maintains it? [migrated]

So I have an Samsung 240gb 840 EVO that I upgraded to an 500gb 860 EVO, I want to keep the old one as a backup (So i can swap it back in if the new one fails (it is the Operating system drive)). I am a bit late to this as I actually replaced it about a year and half ago (so the old SSD has now been sat on the shelf for about 1 and a bit years) and have just bought an external usb enclosure for it. Currently doing an error check on it (the 840 evo). (Ok it said it would take 3 hours , it lied it took about 10-15mins) and came back saying no errors. Which is nice but surprised me !

I have heard that leaving it on the shelf too long will corrupt the data, so I figure I can stop this by plugging it in every so often.

So the question is if I plug it in say every month or 2 to keep it refreshed, how long do I need to leave it on for ? Is it like 2 seconds or a couple of hours ? Is there something built into the SSD controller itself to keep the data topped up, or is it done by the operating system (win 10)? And if it is windows itself topping it up is being externally mounted on the USB ok, or does it need to be plugged directly into the SATA ?

Also what is the top up mechanism, is it there is some kind of capacitor or battery in the SSD that needs topping or does it go around and re write all the data or is it that it doesn’t top it up and leaving it unpowered is a cumulative thing that eventually destroys the data even if you keep plugging it in every so often?

Can you maintain concentration on a spell from another plane?

Here are two scenarios:

  1. A powerful enemy caster is concentrating on some high-level offensive spell (Incendiary Cloud, Earthquake, etc.)–one PC casts Banishment and the caster fails the save. Can the enemy caster maintain the spell from the demi-plane?
  2. A PC casts Expeditious Retreat and Blink on themselves: when transported to the Ethereal Plane, can they maintain the effect?

Currently, I’m leaning towards ‘no’ in the first case and ‘yes’ in the second, based on this last line from Blink:

You can only affect and be affected by other creatures on the Ethereal Plane.

In other words, as long as you’re in the same plane as the effect you want to maintain, then yes.

How can I as GM control off-topic moments and get the players to maintain a serious tone?

My friends and I started playing RPGs at the same time without the help of any experienced person.

I am the GM but I struggle to make the players focus on anything that can progress the story in some way.

They enjoy being chaotic, so they are not motivated simply by the moral good of the action itself.

For example:

  • not forming the party, and fighting and arguing instead
  • ignoring people who need help or are injured, just for the fun of it

The sessions end up being fun, but it takes ridiculously long to progress and it gets frustrating for me.

What I used to do is make it clear that they will gain something that interests them.

I want to play Call of Cthulhu. What I can do to make the game serious that does not take away the freedom of choice from them (without me having to beg for it)?

Can you maintain a grapple you are no longer capable of initiating?

How do the requirements to maintain a grapple contrast against the requirements for initiating a grapple? For example, if a paladin successfully initiates a grapple against an orc (using one free hand, per the rules), and the paladin subsequently uses both hands to grasp his greatsword to attack, does the orc cease to be Grappled?

In terms of storytelling, this could go either way; either the paladin must keep one hand on the orc, or the paladin is allowed to maintain an already-established grapple by (for example) hooking an arm or leg onto the orc.

The Rules

The rules require a free hand to start a grapple. The mental image is that the orc can’t walk away because the paladin used his hand to grab the orc. This can be intuitively extrapolated into the paladin maintaining the grapple with his hand, but the rules don’t explicitly say that this is what happens.

I added bold italics to the bits I found most important.


When you want to grab a creature or wrestle with it, you can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.

The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you, and it must be within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check, a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition (see appendix A). The condition specifies the things that end it, and you can release the target whenever you like (no action required).

Escaping a Grapple.

A grappled creature can use its action to escape. To do so, it must succeed on a Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by your Strength (Athletics) check.

Moving a Grappled Creature.

When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you. (PHB p.195)

The way I see it, there are two distinct concepts: there’s The Grappling procedure, and there’s the Grappled condition.

The first half of this text is describing the Grappling procedure. For example, this procedure has certain requirements (including a free hand).

Then comes the sentence, “If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition.” This is the connection between the Grappling procedure and the Grappled condition. The Grappling procedure is how you apply the Grappled condition to a target.

The text that comes after “you subject the target to the grappled condition” is about the Grappled condition. I don’t believe the earlier text (about the grappling procedure) applies here– but even if I’m right, the text could have been written more clearly, perhaps by explicitly defining the difference between “Grappling” and “Grappled”.

In case anyone was hoping the “Grappled condition” rules would help clear this up, here’s from Appendix A: Conditions.

A condition lasts either until it is countered (the prone condition is countered by standing up, for example) or for a duration specified by the effect that imposed the condition (PHB p.290).

Note that, in the example given, the Prone condition is distinct from whatever event caused the Prone condition.


  • A grappled creature’s speed becomes 0,and it can’t benefit from any bonus to its speed.
  • The condition ends if the grappler is incapacitated (see the condition).
  • The condition also ends if an effect removes the grappled creature from the reach of the grappler or grappling effect, such as when a creature is hurled away by the thunderwave spell. (PHB p.290)

There’s no mention of the grappler losing all free hands, shrinking, or otherwise failing to satisfy grappling’s initial requirements. There is a mention of an incapacitated grappler automatically ending a grapple, but “Incapacitated” is a much more severe status than not having use of a free hand. I have some thoughts on what this means when I read between the lines– but these are game mechanics; if I’m reading between the lines to be able to obey them, I’m probably not providing a true RAW interpretation.

Going back to the paladin grappling an orc at the beginning, my best guess is that he can use his two-handed weapon without any problem, even though it means he can’t start a new grapple until he releases the weapon with one hand. He can also be polymorphed into a mouse and maintain the grapple, even though he won’t be able to initiate a new grapple due to size restrictions.

How can I maintain and automate a list of download URLs with known hashes?

I’m familiar with the concept of downloading a file and manually checking it against a published checksum. See How to verify the checksum of a downloaded file (pgp, sha, etc.)? and Is there a command line method by which I can check whether a downloaded file is complete or broken? for examples.

I would now like to maintain my own list of target URLs and expected checksums, something like:, SHA123456..., SHA1A1A1A... 

…and automate the download-and-check process.

Before I make the mistake of hacking my own solution, is there an established way to do this on a Debian-based distro?