## How Oxygen and Nitrogen generators are used in manufacturing companies

The air we breathe contains two gases that are extremely useful in industry: oxygen (about 21%) and nitrogen (about 78%). Adding oxygen to a process enables better control of heating patterns, higher furnace efficiencies (for lower fuel consumption) and reduction in particulate and NOx emissions. It’s used with fuel gases to enhance processes including gas welding, gas cutting, oxygen scarfing, flame cleaning, flame hardening and flame straightening. Oxygen is a raw material in many oxidation processes and to regenerates catalysts. Nitrogen gas is used for purposes ranging from inerting and purging to flushing and sterilizing to product transfer and packaging. Many such processes remove undesirable oxygen from a manufacturing process or environment, preventing oxidation that can damage metal parts and sensitive electronics. Nitrogen is also used in refining and gas separation processes. Since oxygen and nitrogen occur together in the air, they must be separated before they can be used. The right tool for the job is an oxygen generator or a nitrogen generator.

How an Oxygen plant works
Oxygen molecules are separated from the other molecules within a clean, dry compressed air stream. Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective technology that enables continuous, high-capacity oxygen flow at the desired level of purity (90% to 95%). Adsorption happens when atoms, ions or molecules from a substance (compressed air in this case) adhere to a surface of an adsorbent. PSA technology isolates oxygen molecules from other molecules (nitrogen, CO2, water vapor and trace gases) to leave high purity oxygen at the outlet of the generator. The process takes place in two separate pressure vessels (tower A and tower B), each filled with a carbon molecular sieve, that switch between a separation process and a regeneration process.

How a Nitrogen generator works
Nitrogen molecules are separated from other molecules within a clean, dry compressed air stream. Pressure Swing Adsorption technology is used here as well, to isolate nitrogen molecules from other molecules in compressed air to leave nitrogen at the desired purity at the outlet of the Nitrogen plant. For some applications, such as tire inflation and fire prevention, relatively low purity levels (between 90% and 97%) are required. Other applications, such as food/beverage processing and plastic molding, require higher levels of purity (from 97% to 99.999%).

RO and DI filters use different physical reactions to clean water. Reverse Osmosis (RO) is used to partially clean-up tap water to make it roughly 90% to 99% pure. Deionization (DI) filters exchange positive hydrogen and negative hydroxyl molecules for positive and negative contaminant molecules in water. DI filtering and other processes are sometimes referred to as “water polishing.”
Understanding the difference between reverse osmosis (RO) and deionized (DI) is important when identifying the right water purification unit for your lab. Having access to high quality water is essential for laboratories to carry out their daily processes and workflows. By taking a closer look at different methods of producing both types of water, RO and DI, you can feel confident in your decision regarding water purification systems.

This deep cold air separation adopts molecular sieve purification and supercharged turbo expander to supplement the cooling capacity of the device, and at the same time adopts the process of producing argon without hydrogen through full distillation. This process is safe, reliable, and economical. The main reasons are:
1. Good safety The whole set of equipment has low operating pressure, simple process, high equipment safety, long switching cycle of molecular sieve system, long service life of switching valve, and reduced safety hazards. The main cooling (K1) adopts 1% liquid oxygen emission to ensure that the accumulation of hydrocarbons is minimized.
2. High reliability A large amount of surplus nitrogen can be sent to the water cooling tower, reducing the load of the chiller, reducing the energy consumption of the air separation unit, reducing the use cost, and further improving the reliability of the device.
3. Convenient operation and maintenance, simple process

Regenerative desiccant dryers are used in compressed air systems that require dew points to be below the minimum that refrigerated dryers can produce (generally 40 degrees Fahrenheit). Three types of regenerative desiccant dryers are widely used throughout industry: heatless, heated and blower purge.
The following discussion doesn’t address heat-of-compression (HOC) desiccant dryers, even though they require the least amount of energy to operate. The use of HOC dryers is limited to lubricant-free compressors.
Many plants require air quality that only regenerative desiccant dryers can produce. Unfortunately, in too many cases, the decision about which type of regenerative dryer to purchase is based on initial capital cost alone. This decision basis ignores the cost of energy that will be required to operate the dryer. Including energy cost can alter the economics of a purchase decision dramatically.

Some of the first known filters were created to remove unwanted contaminants from water. This process was pioneered by the Romans, but it has also been cited as having other origins. The word “filter” actually comes from the Latin word “filtrum” or “feltrum,” which is related to felt or compressed wool, providing a means to filter contaminants when water passes through it. The development of filters for oil cleanliness did not occur until the early 1900s through the progression of crude oil refining and the automobile industry.

## Manufacturing and development of a bolted GFRP flange joint for oil and gas applicati

Manufacturing and development of a bolted GFRP flange joint for oil and gas applications
The manufacturing industry saw a significant rebound, and oil prices started to recover as well. Both of these trends are expected to continue in 2017.

At Allied Valve, we also saw some big changes this year. We expanded our product line to include Masoneilan control valves, CDC rupture discs, and Groth relief valves and flame arresters. We also beefed up our service capabilities with a new Mobile Lab trailer and new control valve testing systems.

Finally, we continued our initiative to bring you valuable content related to valves, actuators, and the many industries we serve. Here are our top 5 industrial valve articles of 2016.

Maximizing Your Control Valve Performance: A Guide to Control Valve Selection, Maintenance, and Repair
Process plants can contain thousands of control valves, responsible for keeping process variables like flow, level, pressure, and temperature within the desired operating range. Despite their importance to product quality, efficiency, and a company’s bottom line, control valves are often neglected. This article provides an in-depth look at the factors that affect control valve performance and how to keep your valves always working their best.
It came to our attention earlier this year that some safety valves containing Thermodiscs (e.g., Consolidated 1811 and Consolidated 1711 series) were being put through hydrostatic testing. These valve parts are designed for steam service only and water can cause damage, potentially beyond repair. This article describes the problems that hydrostatic testing can cause and what you can do to mitigate these problems.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Society of Automation (ISA) provide standards for the hydrostatic testing of control valves. The goal of the test is to verify the valves’ structural integrity and leak tightness. This article summarizes the fluid, pressure, and time requirements of hydrostatic testing as well as the standards for acceptable performance.
To work properly when they’re needed, all valves must be maintained. It used to be that preventative maintenance was the only option. But with the diagnostic tools available today, it’s possible in some cases to use a data-based predictive approach instead. Both of these approaches are part of an effective valve discmaintenance program. This article helps you understand when each of them is most appropriate.
Sand casting can be used for the majority of metals. Even highly reactive magnesium is sand cast provided care is taken and the correct materials used by adding what are called inhibitors into the sand.

Sand castings inevitably have a slow cooling rate because of the large insulating mass of sand surrounding the liquid metal as it cools. Grain sizes and dendrite arm spacings tend to be larger than in equivalent section sizes in die-castings.
Sand casting involves the pouring of molten metal into a cavity-shaped sand mould where it solidifies (Fig. 6.8). The mould is made of sand particles held together with an inorganic binding agent. After the metal has cooled to room temperature, the sand mould is broken open to remove the casting. The main advantage of sand casting is the low cost of the mould, which is a large expense with permanent mould casting methods. The process is suitable for low-volume production of castings with intricate shapes, although it does not permit close tolerances and the mechanical properties of the casting are relatively low owing to the coarse grain structure as a result of slow cooling rate.
The goal of this experimental study is to manufacture a bolted GFRP forged flange connection for composite pipes with high strength and performance. A mould was designed and manufactured, which ensures the quality of the composite materials and controls its surface grade. Based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section X, this GFRP flange was fabricated using biaxial glass fibre braid and polyester resin in a vacuum infusion process. In addition, many experiments were carried out using another mould made of glass to solve process-related issues. Moreover, an investigation was conducted to compare the drilling of the GFRP flange using two types of tools; an Erbauer diamond tile drill bit and a Brad & Spur K10 drill. Six GFRP flanges were manufactured to reach the final product with acceptable quality and performance. The flange was adhesively bonded to a composite pipe after chamfering the end of the pipe. Another type of commercially-available composite flange was used to close the other end of the pipe. Finally, blind flanges were used to close both ends, making the pressure vessel that will be tested under the range of the bolt load and internal pressure.
In manufacturing of the steel bridge, fillet welded T-joint is widely used and angular distortion is often generated. So, reduction or control of angular distortion without additional processes to welding is strongly demanded because it takes great time and effort to correct the angular distortion. In this study, the effectiveness of welding with trailing reverse-side flame line heating for preventing angular distortion was investigated through the welding experiment and numerical simulation in submerged arc welding of fillet T-joint with three different thick flange plate. First, the heat source models for numerical analysis of both submerged arc welding and flame line heating were constructed based on the comparison with the measured temperature histories and angular distortion. And then, these heat source models were used in combination with various kinds of distance between two heat sources to make clear the appropriate distance condition for smallest angular distortion was 150 mm, and it does not depend on thickness of flange plate. It was also confirmed that the experimental angular distortions were in good agreement with those calculated. With a focus on the influence of thickness of flange plate, the reduction of angular distortion by welding with trailing reverse-side flame line heating becomes smaller with increasing thickness of flange plate. However, angular distortion could be adequately prevented under the appropriate flame line heating condition in either thickness of flange plate because the welding-induced angular distortion also becomes smaller with increasing thickness of flange plate. Thus, it was concluded that welding with trailing reverse-side flame line heating could be useful for preventing angular distortion of fillet T-joint, which is a component of steel bridge, enough not to correct it after welding.
Garlock offers a range of Butterfly Valves for different applications. Ranging from GAR-SEAL Butterfly Valves are used extensively where corrosive, abrasive and toxic media, to STERILE-SEAL valves are used in applications where sterile processes need to be maintained in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
Depending on your application, different air valve material and design type should be used. For a better understanding on which type of Garlock Butterfly Valve will best fit the application, you can refer to our Chart
The mechanism of opening of the aortic valve was investigated in dogs by attaching radiopaque markers to the commissures and the leaflets. Analysis of abnormal cardiac cycles demonstrated that, when the ventricular pressure first equalled the aortic pressure, the intercommissural distances increased 9 percent, and the valve opened with a stellate orifice without forward flow and without a rise in aortic pressure. Further opening of the aortic valve was dependent on forward flow over a narrow range. A new mechanism of aortic valve opening is proposed. This mechanism results in minimal flexion stresses on the leaflets and is important for the longevity of the normal aortic valve. It can occur only if the leaflets arise from an expansile aortic root.
Original LESER spare parts are the guarantee that also after maintenance works your safety valve precisely fulfills its task to protect people and environment. Learn with the spare pare finder which subassemblies are installed in your individual safety valve to be able to order the correct LESER spare part. The spare part finder shows the bill of materials of your individually configured valve body.
The list shown contains all components, regardless whether they are needed as spare parts. As initial spare parts supply for API, High Efficiency, High Performance, Compact Performance and Modulate Action safety relief valves, we recommend the Spare Part Kits. For the other product groups please contact us for an inital spare part offer. Find out more about LESER-Spare Parts Kits.
Please enter a combination of a serial number (SerNr.) and an article number (ArtNr.) to bring up the right spare parts (e.g. SerNr: 10202021, ArtNr: 4411.4443). You can find the serial and article numbers on the name plate of the valve or on the Certificate for Gobal Application, which you can download in the CERTIFICATES-area.
Please pay attention to the following user instruction:
The spare part finder currently only shows bills of materials for valves assembled in our Hohenwestedt plant. For spare parts lists of other valves, please contact your local partner.
Some items in the bill of materials are subassemblies which contain one or several of the following items. In most cases the subassembly should be ordered as a spare part.

# Overview

The process manufacturing is (in contrast to discrete manufacturing) focused on the production of continuous goods such as oil. The planning is typically solvable by means of Linear Programming, come constraints can be introduced for MILP.

# Problem Formulation

The problem consists of

• Sequence of consecutive time intervals $$t\in\{1,\dots,n_t\}$$, each with start and end $$(s_t,e_t)$$ and length $$l_t=e_t-s_t$$. Consecutive means $$e_{t}=s_{t+1}$$ for all $$t\in\{1,\dots,n_t-1\}$$.
• List of type of goods that are being produced: $$j\in \{1,…,n_j\}$$
• Demand of each type of good per time interval $$d_{j,t}$$.
• List of production lines $$i\in{1,\dots,n_i}$$
• Availability of production lines per time interval $$a_{i,t}$$. $$a_{i,t}$$ is binary – whether available or not.
• Manufacturing speed per production line per type goods $$v_{i,j}$$.
• Setup time of production line from one type of goods to another one $$u_{i,j,j’}$$.
• Price for using a production line (leasing based), counted per minute $$c_{i}$$

The goal is to plan the production lines so the demand is covered and the price for leasing is minimal.

Notes:

• The setup time can be shorter or longer or equal to the length of the intervals
• It is acceptable that the production line will not work the whole time interval if the supply has been completed sooner
• The setup to the production of another good can start any time, not necessarily at the beginning of an interval.

# Example

There are two production lines, i.e., $$n_i = 2$$ and there are two types of goods, i.e. $$n_j=2$$.

We have two intervals, i.e. $$n_t=2$$, each has a leght of 1 hour. Say one starts at 1 pm, the second at 2 pm.

The demand is:

• $$d_{1,1}=1.1$$
• $$d_{1,2}=1$$
• $$d_{2,1}=0.5$$
• $$d_{2,2}=1$$

The of running the production lines are:

• $$c_{1} =c_{2} = 1$$ USD/minute

All possible setup times are twelve minutes, i.e.:

• $$u_{i,j,j’}=0.2$$ for all $$i,j,j’$$ where $$j\neq j’$$.

The speeds are:

• $$v_{1,1}=1.1$$
• $$v_{1,2}=1.5$$
• $$v_{1,1}=1$$
• $$v_{1,1}=1$$

Obviously, the demand is met for a total cost of $$4$$ if the first line is producing the first type of goods at both intervals and the second line is producing the second type.

However, it might be tempting to switch them after the first interval. If there would be no setup time needed, the cost would be $$1+1+1+0.5/1.5=3.33$$ which is better. However, this is not possible because of the setup time of the second production line.

# Question

What is the algorithm to schedule this manufacturing process optimally?

An answer is welcome even if it would outline the way and approach (MILP, SAT, CSP,…).

# Ideas fo far

• If the length of intervals would be fixed, say 1 hour and the setup time would be defined in terms of these units, say 2 hours. Then, it might be solvable by SAT/CSP.
• An idea is to use an evolutionary algorithm that would: consist of a sequence of activities with mutations (add an activity, delete activity, prolong activity) and crossover (mix two plans in a random way).

## Software process as a manufacturing process and software process with Process-Sensitive Software Engineering Environment

As stated in the title, i have been searching the different views and differences between software process as manufacturing process with the software process in Process-sensitive software engineering for my research input. would you please help me on giving links or suggesting your opinion?

## Which types of keywords will work for Manufacturing industries news online portal web

Hello,
I have an online portal website( the machine maker ) for manufacturing industries news and success stories. For the SEO need to shortlist keywords and i m getting confused with the keywords because do not want to highly competitive keywords for my website.
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