Selecting pipe and piping materials

Steel Pipes
Steel pipes are the most commonly used pipes in water supply systems. They are also used in pipelines for natural gas, and sewerage systems. Although comparatively expensive to other pipes, they hold the advantage of being able to withstand high pressures and are available in more convenient lengths, and can also be welded easily, thereby resulting in lower installation and transportation costs. These types of pipes are highly efficient and can be used in small diameters as needed and are 100% recyclable compared to other materials. The pipes can further be melted down and turned into other usable material in industry. Furthermore, the high strength of these pipes and resistance to damage caused by human errors, tree roots, and extreme weather conditions make these pipes the ideal choice for most water and sewerage supply systems.

The disadvantages of steel pipes include thermal conductivity, which is very poor as there is a difference in heat transfer. These types of pipes are usually bonded with aluminum or copper alloy to increase thermal conductivity and improve heat transfer. Cost is another issue, as these pipes are expensive and this is guided by the misconception of being a one-time purchase. However, steel pipes are difficult to fabricate and lack the malleable qualities that other materials have, therefore repairs and replacements of steel pipes are extra difficult.

Basic material properties

Steel is strong, rigid, and has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. It is also heavy (multiple workers may be needed to transport it) and is subject to corrosion. Sometimes it is called carbon steel or black special steel to differentiate from stainless and galvanized steel. All steel, by definition, contains carbon.

Steel often is used for closed hydronic systems because it is inexpensive, especially when compared with other materials in systems with high pressures, and corrosion is relatively easily controlled in these systems. It also is a good choice for steam and steam-condensate systems because it handles high temperatures and pressures well, and corrosion is normally not an issue in steam pipes. However, corrosion is an issue in steam-condensate pipes, and many engineers specify schedule 80 steel pipe simply because it takes about twice as long to rust through as schedule 40 pipe.

If amines (commonly cyclohexylamine, morpholine, or diethylethanolamine (DEAE) are fed properly to neutralize condensate pipe pH, condensate pipes can last the life of the building. Some building owners do not want these chemicals in steam that may be used for humidification because of health concerns; however, not using these amines might require a change to stainless steel(SS) piping or adding a separate “clean steam” system for humidification and for sterilization of medical instruments.

Rigidity is important because it determines the distance between hangers. Steel pipe is manufactured in 21-ft lengths, and the hangers can be spaced that widely for large-diameter pipe. More flexible materials, however, may require hangers on as close as 4-ft centers or even continuously. Consult ANSI/MSS SP-58: Pipe Hangers and Supports – Materials, Design, Manufacture, Selection, Application, and Installation for details about hangers and hanger spacing.

A low coefficient of thermal expansion minimizes the need for expansion loops and expansion joints. However, the high rigidity of steel means that although it expands less, it exerts very high forces on anchors.

Galvanized steel pipe is steel pipe that is dipped into a pool of zinc (see Figure 1). Galvanizing has two methods of corrosion reduction:

It coats the surface like paint, and under most circumstances it forms a very adherent oxide layer like aluminum and SS.
It provides a sacrificial anode (zinc) to receive corrosion instead of the steel corroding.
Galvanized steel pipe has all the advantages of steel pipe, and is used in insulated and coated piping, plus improved corrosion resistance in most environments, although at a slightly higher cost. Galvanizing works almost perfectly in applications where it is wetted and dried periodically (e.g., road signs and guard rails). It can fail in environments with high sodium (e.g., softened water that started out very hard) because the sodium makes the adherent oxide film detach and react more like steel pipe where the oxide flakes off. If galvanized pipe is being welded, the welder needs to be careful to grind down to the raw steel. Repairing galvanizing on the inside of the pipe is difficult or impossible. If the interior needs a continuous galvanized layer, consider mechanical couplings. (More information is available via the American Galvanizers Association.)

Copper pipe often is used in both hydronic and domestic applications, especially for 2-in. and smaller pipe sizes. However, some contractors propose replacing galvanized steel domestic-water pipe with copper up to 6-in. in size, especially in the Midwest. Copper is an expensive material but has the advantage of weighing less than steel and may require fewer employees to install, depending on weight and union restrictions. Also, copper is generally more noble and corrosion-resistant than steel or galvanized steel pipe fittings.

Stainless steel is widely considered to be resistant to all corrosion. This is true in many circumstances, but not all. Anaerobic and chloride corrosion can affect SS. The most common alloy is 304 SS, which adds 18% chromium and 8% nickel to steel. 304L has reduced carbon content to minimize the tendency for SS to corrode at welds. SS with the L designation is recommended for all SS that will be welded and might have corrosion issues, like fume exhaust and some pipe systems. 316 and 316L add molybdenum to reduce susceptibility to chlorides.

In the past decade, we have seen thinner SS being proposed as an alternative to galvanized seamless steel tube and pipe and larger-diameter copper pipe, primarily for domestic potable-water piping. There is one potential problem with this if done incorrectly (see, “Mixing materials may equal trouble”).

SS requires some oxygen to build an adhering oxide layer, like aluminum car wheels. This is normally not a problem in hydronic heating/cooling systems or domestic-water systems, but a large chilled-water-storage system could have oxygen levels become low enough to have issues with microbially influenced corrosion (known as MIC).

There are many grades of SS. In general, 300 series alloys are the most corrosion-resistant and are nonmagnetic. 400 series are harder, more resistant to abrasion, withstand higher temperatures, and are magnetic. 200 series alloys are used in sinks and applications where less corrosion resistance is acceptable.

Partition walls: types, materials and cost of partition walls

[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Introduction to Partition Walls:[/font]

[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Partition Walls also called Stud Walls are unloaded walls intended to separate apart within a building, to form an interior room/cabinet, or to separate the laundry area from the rest of the building. Since partitioning walls can be loaded with a roof, therefore, they are built solely for the purpose of partitioning. They are not as strong as all the other loaded walls. The partition wall has 12 types. Each type is distinguished from the other on the basis of the materials used in it. Therefore, the definition of each type is a description of the materials used in partition walls.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Different Types of Partitioning Walls:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]1. Partitioning of brick walls:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]The purpose of a brick wall is similar to that of other types of walls, such as separating one part of a building from another, separating a room, making one interior cabinet, separating one part of that part from another. A brick dividing wall was built with the task of building bricks. A brick wall takes a lot of time to build. Not suitable for the earthquake zone. The advantage of a brick partition wall is that it is not expensive.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]2. Partitioning walls made of certified bricks:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Reinforced bricks are made of reinforced material to add strength to bricks. This type of wall is very strong and durable. The disadvantage of this type of movable partition wall is that these walls are heavy and use a lot of load on the floor.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]3. Differing a Wall made with Hollow & Clay Brick:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Empty concrete is made of units of concrete and clay bricks are made only of clay. Since these types of bricks are empty on the inner side, so they are lightweight and do not put a lot of load on the floor. This is cheaper to build, but not as strong as reinforced partition walls.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]4. Partition wall by concrete material:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Concrete separating concrete is made of concrete made of stone, sand, and cement. Sometimes iron/steel rods are inserted into the concrete material to strengthen it further. Like a brick wall, and a reinforced brick wall, this too is very strong, but still places a heavy load on the lower floor.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]5. Glass made Partitions Wall:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]The glass partition is made of glass. Thick glass panels, hollow glass blocks, or PVC panels are used to create this type of wall. Most glass used for activity partition walls may be made of opaque glass or other adhesive adhesives are attached to the glass wall to protect privacy.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]6. Grass Boards as Building Blocks of Partitions Walls:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]These types of walls are easily moved from one place to another. Grass boards are less expensive and weigh less. These are not built permanently but are placed in one place and in time these walls are moved to another location.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]7. Partition walls made of Paris cement and burnt minerals:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]This type of wall is made of Paris plaster plates or burnt minerals. This is very easy to build, but it does not last very long. These types of walls are well built and their finish is very smooth. These types of walls are easily built and easily demolished.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]8. Different Walls Made with Metal Lath:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Steel frames or planks are used to fix metal parts. These steel straps are tight, strong, and durable. Lath is fastened with steel wire attached to soft metal bars or channels separated by 15 to 30 cm. These metal bars are attached to the farm on both sides to protect from heat and compaction.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]9. Walls built with A.C. & G.I Spreadsheets:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]These sheets are cut with wood or metal strips to create a texture on both sides. These sheets are economical, lightweight, and durable. Each slab has a basic or metal asbestos cement sheet (5mm) with a plain asbestos cement sheet (10mm) attached to that in any part.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]10. Partition Walls made up of Wood:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Wood partition walls are also strong, durable, and economical. Wood partition walls can be repaired or moved. If the wall cannot be moved, it should have a di-pode stand.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]11. Wooden Partition Walls:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Wood is the name of the wood used in the USA. The wooden partition is a wooden frame supported by a floor or sidewalls. The structure consists of a solid arrangement of wooden parts, which can be plastered or boarded up, etc. on each side. Not them.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]12. Abestos Partition Walls:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]Asbestos is a silicate mineral, used for construction purposes. Like the Paris plaster, it is easy to build and can be easily constructed. Another advantage of Asbestos Cement is water resistance. Asbestos cement sheets are laid with wooden or metal frames.[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]13. Double glazed windows as Partition Walls:[/font]
[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]It is used as acoustic insulation with soundproofing material. Two acoustic panels are placed at a distance of 50 mm. The space is full of air. The air contained in the middle of the small spine is a kind of ‘firmness’ and transmits vibrations in low waves, especially though acoustic foam. Specific members give the program a glossy “flawless” look. Glossy partition walls are widely used in all offices, private meeting places, and board rooms.[/font]

[font=-apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, “Segoe UI”, Roboto, “Helvetica Neue”, Arial, “Noto Sans”, sans-serif, “Apple Color Emoji”, “Segoe UI Emoji”, “Segoe UI Symbol”, “Noto Color Emoji”]The partition walls mentioned above are of different types. This section is based on the material used for each type of partition wall. The durability and cost also vary with each type of wall. Walls made of concrete and reinforced concrete or steel materials are stronger than the walls built by Asbestos and the Plaster of Paris. The attractiveness and beauty of the wall also depend on the type of material used. There are some dividing walls that are not built with individual materials. They are made of composite materials. Using composite materials can add strength, beauty, and durability to walls. [/font]

How to colour blend between two materials?

I’ve been trying to get a material (with an image texture) to animate towards a colour mix with transparency, but either I’m attempting something the wrong way, or unable to find the right keyword to find about similar examples.

What I’m trying to accomplish is to make a 3D character blush; I have the face area on it’s own material, with textures set, but that’s where my problem is. If it was animating between two colours, I would simply use Color.Lerp, but since textures are included, that makes me think I have to somehow have a colour mix option for this.

I’ve also tried to just use the built-in animator to see if Unity would blend between the colours of two different materials, but after all it turned out to be an instant change on the new keyframe; which leaves me to think so far my only exit could be to manually create several keyframes, and create several materials to get it close to acceptable.

Although my knowledge about it is close to zero, is this after all only possible with a custom fragment shader? I don’t know if there’s a suitable package, or built-in Unity feature that makes something like this possible, or if at all I’m approaching this problem the right way…

Update: This is the shader I’m using right now, from 魔王. It might be a little confusing since inputs are all abbreviated, so here are some example files that are being used.

Textures

ECS multiple materials per mesh (sub-mesh)

In my toy engine I currently have a MeshComponent and a MaterialComponent.

psuedo:

struct MeshComponent {     Ptr<Mesh> Mesh; };  struct MaterialComponent {     Ptr<Texture> DiffuseTexture;     Ptr<Texture> NormalsTexture; }; 

This is fine, for when a single mesh uses a single material.

pseudo:

Entity entity = CreateEntity(); AddComponentToEntity(entity, meshComponent); AddComponentToEntity(entity, materialComponent); 

But now I want to consider the concept of "sub-meshes" (regions of a mesh that are rendered with a different material, but each sub-mesh shares the parent vertex list). I don’t want my Mesh class to know anything about materials, and vice-versa.

What good approaches are there for "joining" multiple MaterialComponent to a single MeshComponent?

I’ve considered having an entity for each sub-mesh, but that seems brittle (not to mention overkill, as I’m only interested in MaterialComponents).

pseudo:

struct MeshComponent {     Ptr<Mesh> Mesh;     std::vector<Entity> SubMeshEntities; // Would need to ensure the indices match those of the sub-meshes }; 

What other approaches are there?

what is considered “similar suitably sturdy materials” for Galder’s Tower

Galder’s Tower states

You conjure a two-story tower made of stone, wood, or similar suitably sturdy materials.

What would qualify as "similar suitably sturdy materials"? The relevant definition of sturdy is "strong enough to withstand rough work or treatment." Assuming "similarly" sturdy, could the material be extremely hot stone? Would Mythril or diamond qualify under this?

Can the Rune Knight’s runes only be placed on materials that can be carved?

TCoE’s Rune Knight fighter subclass gains proficiency in smith’s tools (i.e. metalworking), and its first major feature is called Rune Carver, which says:

…you can touch a number of objects equal to the number of runes you know, and you inscribe a different rune onto each of the objects. To be eligible, an object must be a weapon, suit of armor, a shield, a piece of jewelry, or something else you can wear or hold in a hand.

The association with smithing, the use of the words "carver" and "inscribe," and the specific examples chosen suggest that the runes must be carved into a substance like wood, metal, leather, or stone. However, nothing in the rules’ mechanics seems to truly constrain this. The criterion that the object must be something "you can wear or hold in a hand" is quite broad.

Can you touch an object that’s wearable or holdable but unable to be carved (like a sheet of parchment or a linen shirt) and still cause the rune to be magically "inscribed" on it?

What non-component materials are required for wizard spells?

I am currently playing a wizard, and trying to plan ahead. I am making the assumption that all published spells are common and known to him, so while he cannot cast them yet, he is aware of them all, and how they work.

As such he is planning ahead, trying to gather whatever he can to make those spells work when (if) he ever learns to cast them.

Examples:

Scrying (Divination, level 4)

Items belonging to a potential target: likeness or picture; possession or garment; body part (lock of hair, nail etc)

Teleport (Conjuration, level 7)

Items from a location: associated object taken within the last 6 months

Dream (Illusion, level 5)

Items belonging to a potential target: body part (lock of hair, nail etc)

Infernal calling (Conjuration, level 5)

Items belonging to a devil: talisman

Animate dead (Necromancy, level 3)

Something to animate: pile of bones; corpse of a medium or small humanoid

I have been through all the spells that I can find, but my question is: are there any items I have missed that are not material components, but have a specified positive effect on the spell in the same way as the above items.

I only care about the wizard spell list using all official sources (including optional spells such as from TGtE and dunamancy from EGtW).

Best way to store information about a list of materials and their quantity

I want to store some information about a game. Specifically information about certain buildings that can be built in it.

Said buildings require materials to be built. I am trying to come up with a good DB model for storing that information in my database.

For example, one building needs 10 wood to be built. I thought about having a "Buildings" table with columns for ID, name, icon and material cost. However I’m usually used to referencing common values from another table. This is to say I would have a separate table named "Materials" with columns ID, name and icon and the "Buildings" table would have a column "MaterialsRequired" which would hold a reference to the ID of the needed material in the "Materials" table. But I have no idea how to do that (which is a best practice, afaik) AND store the needed amount of said material.