Does a level 1 Wizard casting the Ray of Frost cantrip deal damage equal to 1d4 + spellcasting modifier?

I am GMing for a Pathfinder 2e group. A player noticed that cantrips are automatically heightened to half the PC’s level rounded up. They therefore believe that a level 1 wizard casting Ray of Frost should count the spell as “heightened” and therefore deal damage equal to 2d4 + spellcasting modifier.

I believe that cantrips are level 1 spells that have the cantrip trait. Therefore, a level 1 wizard cannot “heighten” the cantrip to gain the extra 1d4 damage.

Ray of Frost: https://2e.aonprd.com/Spells.aspx?ID=245 (CRB 362)

Cantrips: https://2e.aonprd.com/Rules.aspx?ID=275 (CRB 300)

Trait: https://2e.aonprd.com/Traits.aspx (CRB 13)

How much times the strength modifier does a chained barbarian add when making a bite using Animal Fury?

The assumption is bite is the only attack the barbarian makes during the turn, and the barbarian has no other natural attacks. I seem to get three different answers on this:

The barbarian adds 0.5x the strength modifier. This is because the rules on Animal Fury state that “If the bite hits, it deals 1d4 points of damage (assuming the barbarian is Medium; 1d3 points of damage if Small) plus half the barbarian’s Strength modifier.”

The barbarian adds 1x the strength modifier. This is because the 19 STR cannibal from the gamemastery guide has its bite damage listed as 1d4+4, which is consistent with this.

The barbarian adds 1.5x the strength modifier. This is because a bite is a primary natural attack, and the natural attack rules state that “If a creature has only one natural attack, it is always made using the creature’s full base attack bonus and adds 1-1/2 times the creature’s Strength bonus on damage rolls.”

So which one is it?

By RAW, do monks include their ability modifier in the damage roll of their unarmed strikes?

By default, an unarmed strike deals 1 + Strength modifier damage. If a character has one or more levels in Monk, the class’s Martial Arts ability gives them the following benefit (among others):

You can roll a d4 in place of the normal damage of your unarmed strike

Now, is the “normal damage” of the unarmed strike the “1 + Strength modifier” (meaning that a level 1 monk deals just 1d4 damage with an unarmed strike regardless of ability scores) or is it just the “1” (meaning that a level 1 monk deals 1d4 + Strength modifier damage with an unarmed strike, with the option of using Dexterity instead of Strength)?

How does the Impervious Modifier apply to Defenses other than Toughness?

It’s been about a Month since i started playing Mutants and Masterminds 3e with my friends, and we absolutely LOVE the system (particularly the one-shot modules), but something in the Impervious Modifier caught my attention today. It says that though it’s intended to be used for Toughness, Impervious can apply to other defenses at the DMs discretion to reflect reliable abilities, be it a robust immune system, keen warrior intuition or years of practice repelling magic attacks. What it doesnt mention, however, is how these Impervious Defenses would function.

Can someone tell me How would Impervious Will, Impervious Fortitude, Impervious Dodge and Impervious Parry function?

readline: unknown key modifier

I am attempting to set revert-all-at-newline on in my bash config file.

bind 'revert-all-at-newline on' 

However, this throws the error

readline: revert-all-at-newline: unknown key modifier 

bind does not appear to have it

$   bind -l | grep revert-all-at-newline $   

But it is in the man readline documentation locally.

How can I get set the revert-all-at-newline config variable?

  • bash version 4.4.2
  • readline version 7.0