If a bonus action attack for Two-Weapon Fighting involves multiple ability modifiers, which ones are added to the damage roll?

This question is entirely inspired by the following:

  • Bonus action attack ability score modifier (5E Question)

That question, however, happens to ask about a homebrew method of adding multiple ability modifiers to the bonus action attack of Two-Weapon Fighting and so, ultimately, has a homebrew solution. This question concerns non-homebrew methods of creating this scenario.


Two-Weapon Fighting states:

[…] You don’t add your ability modifier to the damage of the bonus attack, unless that modifier is negative. […]

But what happens when you would add more than one ability modifier to the damage roll? There are a few ways of doing this, and I’ll list the ones I know of below:

The Way of Mercy Monk’s Hand of Harm feature:

[…] When you hit a creature with an unarmed strike, you can spend 1 ki point to deal extra necrotic damage equal to one roll of your Martial Arts die + your Wisdom modifier. […]

The Devotion Paladin’s Channel Divinity: Sacred Weapon feature:

[…] For 1 minute, you add your Charisma modifier to attack rolls made with that weapon […]

The Oathbreaker Paladin’s Aura of Hate feature:

[…] Starting at 7th level, the paladin, as well any fiends and undead within 10 feet of the paladin, gains a bonus to melee weapon damage rolls equal to the paladin’s Charisma modifier […]

The Ranger’s Foe Slayer feature:

[…] Once on each of your turns, you can add your Wisdom modifier to the attack roll or the damage roll of an attack you make against one of your favored enemies. […]

The Warlock’s Lifedrinker Eldritch Invocation:

[…] When you hit a creature with your pact weapon, the creature takes extra necrotic damage equal to your Charisma modifier […]

Note, that perhaps some of these aren’t quite the same as the others, but what I’m asking remains the same: When a feature actually does cause you to add multiple different ability modifiers to an attack made as part of Two-Weapon Fighting which ones are not added to the damage roll?

Dice rolling mechanic where modifiers have a predictable and consistent effect on difficulty

I am looking for a dice rolling mechanic that makes it such that increasing or decreasing a modifier on the roll has a constant multiplier effect on the probability of the outcome.

Say you have to make a roll for STAT. Such a roll has a probability of success of 50%. Now say you roll with a mod of -1, this roll has a probability of success of 25%. -2 has a probability of 12.5%. -3 is 6.25% and so on, always halving. The other way around it should be the same but for the probability of failure, always being divided by the same factor.

It doesn’t have to be a multiplier of 0.5, in fact I’d much rather it was a multiplier of 0.66-0.75, not such an extreme change. The default unmodded value doesn’t need to be 50% chance of success either, it can be something else.

Is there any kind of dice rolling mechanic I can use to simulate something like this?

Psionic talent modifiers stacks?

If you choose "Unlocked Talent", you choose 5 "psionic talents" (also named 0-level psionic powers) then if you have enough power points to spend, you can activate "Precognition, Greater", then "Inertial Armor", then "Thicken Skin", then "Force field". Each of these add Armor Class modifiers and sometime Saving Throws modifiers, can they stack?

Do negative modifiers change a critical hit? [duplicate]

I want to play a champion fighter and am considering whether or not to get the Great Weapon Master Feat which states:

Before you make a melee attack with a heavy weapon that you are proficient with, you can choose to take a – 5 penalty to the attack roll. If the attack hits, you add +10 to the attackā€™s damage.

If I take the -5 to attack roll and roll a critical hit, will that crit still be in effect, or will the -5 counteract that? Also, in the event that I do crit with a -5, would I add the +10 damage before, or after I double damage, like with other modifiers. It doesn’t say that the +10 is a modifier specifically, so I was a bit confused (note: for critical hits, my group usually has house-rule to double the damage and then add modifiers instead of the normal double dice.)

When are Ability Scores (not modifiers) used in D&D 5e?

In D&D, the main ability is a score from 1-30, while the modifiers range from -5 to +10 (score -10/2 round down)

In the Player’s Handbook, it states:

Because ability modifiers affect almost every Attack roll, ability check, and saving throw, ability modifiers come up in play more often than their associated scores.

So when do the scores come up?

D&D 5E Multiclass spell casting and spell modifiers

Question is simply this, I know that you use your spell modifier from the class you gained the spell from. However, for something like Tempest Cleric gaining the use of Thunderwave from their subclass, and as a multiclass with Sorcerer who can also use Thunderwave normally (if they want to learn the spell), can I use my Charisma instead of Wisdom as my spell modifier casting Thunderwave with my focus instead of holy symbol?

Do Cantrips Benefit From Spell Attack Modifiers?

While I was rolling to attack for my Warlock’s Eldritch Blast, I said I don’t think it gets my Spell Attack Bonus because I didn’t see it say such anywhere, and the DM (also new to D&D) agreed, said it sounded correct as cantrips don’t get the bonus. As I have been reading however it seems that they do get the bonus to attack rolls, it just certainly doesn’t carry over to damage save rare exceptions. Can anyone verify this to me? And if so, show a source so I could let my DM know?