How to modify a monster to be a reasonable challenge for a level 1 party?

I was preparing a one-shot adventure for my friends. It will include a fight with a weakened mind flayer and a giant heart which will be the boss of the adventure. The heart will summon gory minions (could be anything, must be suited to the gory theme).

How do I modify the mindflayer to be a reasonable challenge for a level 1 party and what official monster is the closest to a giant pulsing hearth (mabe gibbering mouther?) might still be workable. The party will include four first level player characters consisting of the folk hero fighter, cleric, wizard and a rouge from starter set character sheets. Thanks 🙂

To what extent should DMs let players modify their racial traits?

I’m working on a party and one of my players wants to be a tiefling with an air genasi mother and a tiefling father. They want to Look like a tiefling but have the race bonuses of an air genasi.

In addition to this, this player wants to have ‘wings’ that are purely for the aesthetic but move when they cast Levitate. This is understandable and I think it’s a great concept, with the addition to other additional information they cobbled together to make the reasoning behind their unique circumstances (which will take way too long to list) that I think will fit in with my campaign…but a large majority of the other party members are now wanting to do something akin to the tiefling/genasi player.

It goes from simple stuff like a human who’s eyes glow red because they have some ancestor that had some orc blood in them to some wild explanations like “my mother’s father’s wife was a Dragonborn and my dad’s great great grandfather was a rock gnome so I want to be able to spit fire AND have the ability to tinker tiny contraptions!” (yes, this is an actual example from a player)

I think the tiefling/genasi is alright and letting someone add rock gnome’s tinkering abilities to a character who’s race and class doesn’t qualify for it seems harmless but I have no idea how destructive it might be in the endgame.

The question is: To what extent should I allow my players to modify their races’ stats? I don’t want to have too many confusing stat changes and I don’t want to seclude everyone from concept ideas that they like but I’m willing to cut it if it’s unacceptable. Any advice is highly appreciated.

Note: None of them are sorcerers and they’re starting at level 2 Edit: The issue I’m more conflicted with are the players who want to mix and match race mechanics.

does the true seeing spell modify your actual sight, or give you a second sight?

The reason this matters is for determining another question: Can a creature under the effect of the true seeing spell see a creature under the effect of nondetection inside magical darkness?

True seeing reads:

This spell gives the willing creature you touch the ability to see things as they actually are. For the duration, the creature has truesight, notices secret doors hidden by magic, and can see into the Ethereal Plane, all out to a range of 120 feet.

As such it apparently gives the creature truesight (by means of divination magic). So the creature is granted a new sense, but is the use of that sense mutually exclusive to the use of their normal sight?

What are the degrees by which an Arcana Check can modify or effect the characteristics of a spell being cast by the player?

Sorry if the initial wording seems off, basically what I’m trying to get a bearing for is how or in which ways does the Arcana Skill influence or effect actual spells being cast or other spell-centered details? Ie, is rolling on the Arcana skill able to influence the effect or characteristics of a spell? Or does that fall primarily within relation to magic items and not casted spells?

Does Modify Memory stack?

In the DMG, multiple non-damage effects from a source with the same name do not stack (for example, a character with Bless cast on it multiple times only gains the benefit once).

Would this also be true for Modify Memory? If a creature has Modify Memory cast on it to alter one memory, and then cast on it again to alter a different memory, will only one casting take hold, and which one (assuming they’re cast at the same level)?

How can i modify Dijkstra algorithm for equal situation?

I have a question below

In Dijkstra’s Algorithm, if there is more than one possible shortest path from u to any vertex v, any one of the paths can be the output of the algorithms as a shortest path. Assume now that if that is the case for any vertex v, i.e.there are many paths of the same minimum weight, you want to find the path with minimum number of edges. If there are stil ties then they can now be broken arbitrarily. Describe how to modify Dijkstra’s Algorithm to solve this problem

Can an end-user modify conditional rendering in React?

On my Single Page App I am using MSAL.js to authenticate users and to also extract the groups they belong to by using Microsoft Graph endpoints. I save to a variable the Specific groups the user belongs to. According to the content of that variable, a different Home Page will be rendered. The code looks like this:

if ( == 'AppAdmin') {     return (         <div className='h1'> Admin Dashboard</div>     ); } else if ( == 'AppManager') {     return (         <div className='h1'> App Manager Dashboard</div>     ); } else {     return (         <div className='h1'> User Dashboard</div>     ); } contains the group the user belongs to in Active Directory.

Will an end user not belonging to the AppAdmin or AppManager groups be able to modify in their web browser the variable value to fool the browser into rendering admin or manager content?

What is the best way to modify existing creatures to make new ones?

I’ve been looking everywhere and just cannot find a way to create new animals. Yes I know the DM guide has a section on giving monsters powers and CR and stats but there is no statistic guideline for how to make something go from normal to giant or to add one or two stat changes.

For instance. in the Monster Manual owls are CR 0, 1d4-1 HP, 11 AC, with a +3 to perception, stealth, and to hit.

Meanwhile, the Giant owl has 12 AC (how?) 3d10+3 HP (I know d10 comes from Large size, but why three of them? its CR is 1/4. what makes it level 3?) All of it’s stats go up by leaps and bounds, even Int and Cha increased, and it’s perception increases to +5 even though it’s wisdom and proficiency havent increased enough to give it points, and it’s talons go from 1 damage to 2d6+1. I’m fine with this if there is a way to determine it based on how you change an animal, but can’t seem to find any solid rules for this, as they don’t follow the DM guide’s tables at all.

The animal in question I’m trying to make at the moment is a Gorilla, since “Ape” in the handbook is more like a chimpanzee stats wise, and “Giant Ape” is literally king kong.

So, What is the best way, or rules-given way, to modify an animal or monster?

How do I modify weights based on a cost function

I have currently the structure for the simplest neural network. It takes a boolean input and outputs whether it is true or false after training it to know how to tell them apart. I have implemented the structure and have two weights that link to the outputs nodes.

After randomising the initial weights. Inputting true into the network currently returns a 0.7 confidence that it is true and 0.3 for it being false. Giving this a cost value of 0.18 ((1 - 0.7)**2 + (0 - 0.3)**2). How do I then go from the cost function to modifying the weights to give the expected outputs? I am aware of multivariable calculus but I am not sure how it works in this example and how I would program it into the system to modify the dependant weights?