What is the most DPR possible at level 1?

My question is fairly straightforward: What is the combination of feats/race/class/etc that gives the most damage per round at level 1? I’d also be interested to see the maximum possible damage, but this is not the criterion for judgment–just a bonus.

I’m looking to create a level 1 character who is only concerned by doing as much damage as possible at level 1. I should note that there is no consideration for any level past 1 (albeit I am interested in your speculations about level progression). I’m also interested in the requirements for such a character (e.g. the minimum ability scores needed, DM approval, etc).

Here are the stipulations/settings that need to be known:

  • All Primary Source Books are available. Basically if it is RAW it is good.
  • No home-brewed rules. Starting amount of gold as per the default amount.
  • No exceptional magic items are available (only the common ones available anywhere).
  • All variants described in the rules are available (e.g. the variant human class).
  • Assume no situation modifications (e.g. terrain, advantage, etc).
  • Only assume modifications if they are *almost always available. This means we are only interested in DPR (Damage per round).
  • Assume no outside buffs from party members or other sources.
  • Any temporary buffs can be used as long as they last for the entire combat (or close to it). Rage, for instance, would count.

My research tells me that a Barbarian is likely the best choice for this offhand, I am wondering if anyone can come up with a better idea.

Is there a name for the class of algorithms that are the most efficient for a particular task?

This would be analogous to the Kolmogorov Complexity of a string, except in this case, I’m interested in the algorithm that solves a given problem using the least number of steps.

We would therefore have to be able to show that any other algorithm is of the same order of complexity as the algorithm in question.

I’m asking because I’m working on a paper that makes use of this concept, and I was surprised when I realized that I’m not aware of any name for this concept, though I’ll concede I’m risking embarrassment if there is such a name, that I’m simply unaware of.

Is creating a joining/bridging table the most practical and efficient way of normalizing numerous M:M relationships in a database?

Let me start with an example:

Table users:

ID | Name --------- 1, Kirk 2, John 

Table class:

ID | Class ---------- 1, MATH 2, FIN 

Now, based on what I studied so far, in order to properly normalize this database, I’d create another table, a joining/bridging table:

Table class_enrollment:

UID | CID 1     1 1     2 2     1 2     2 

Well, it works fine in these kinds of examples.

But, what if my database has 35 or 50 M:M relationships? Is it really best to create yet another 35/50 joining tables?

What is the most damage that can be done in one round to a single target….with spells

I’m new here, but I scrolled through and did not see this question answered.

I would love to see your theory-craft at work!

What is the most damage you can do to a single opponent in one round, with spells of any class.


I play RAW, so if you are going to use any UA please have a separate category for it. No 3rd party stuff please.

  • No set up round

  • Damaged from anything summoned counts, as long as it attacks on your initiative

  • No outside help, this is about you.

  • Target is not restrained, or vulnerable, or resistant, unless you find a way to make him that way.

  • No crits unless you have a way to guarantee them.

  • Assume that you automatically hit, and that creatures fail saving throws.. but bonus points if you can give reasons why you have a better chance at it.

  • The opponent is generic, so you can’t tailor the spell to a specific monster for more damage.

  • Use any feat, including dragonmarks to get an epic boon…

  • Level max is 20 using any race, class, or combination of classes

  • Use any magic item (as many as you like)

  • Spells that include a weapon attack are allowed (like booming blade)

  • Flame blade or spiritual weapon are also allowed

  • This calculation is about what you can inflict on someone intentionally. So no reaction spells. However damage that is done on the opponents turn in the same round can be added like that from booming blade.

I can’t wait to see what you guys come up with, I’ll add my own as well!

What’s the most efficient way to add Dex to damage with an Elven Curved Blade?

I like the feat Dervish Dance, but it requires a scimitar. Although an Elven Curve Blade’s flavor text says it is “essentially a longer version of a scimitar”, I don’t believe that’s enough of a justification for allowing that feat with this weapon.

I am building a level 1 magus and am looking ahead at feat options. I expect I will take a high dex build and get into weapon finesse. I definitely intend to stay in the magus class, so I’m looking for a feat (or trait) to accomplish this goal.

Is there another way to gain a Dex bonus to attack damage via feats and the like?

What is the most optimal build for keeping an infinite Crab Swarm apocalypse at bay?

My friends and I were discussing a meme we saw when our imaginations took us way too far, and now I’m curious about how many Crab Swarms it would take to kill the most efficient Crab Swarm killer, and who the most efficient Crab Swarm killer could be.


You are an adventurer who happened upon some hijinks and now suddenly, you’re in the middle of a Crab Swarm apocalypse. That is,

  • You’re in the center of a 20sqx20sq (100ft x 100ft) flat square plain;
  • You have one week to prepare;
    • For purposes of this theoretical, you may assume you have any necessary resources in infinite amounts.
  • and, after that week, Crab Swarms begin to appear from all directions in an infinite stream.
    • There is nothing special about any individual Crab Swarm; each is exactly as described.
    • They are all hostile against you, specifically, and will do anything within their crablike powers to murder you.
    • The stream will not be stopped and cannot be halted until you are dead.

Specifically, I am interested in two scenarios: a level 5 adventurer (because Crab Swarms are CR4, so one level 5 adventurer should theoretically be able to defeat a Crab Swarm); and any arbitrary level 20 adventurer (for whom 250 CR4 Crab Swarms would make a CR20 encounter). What are the most effective builds at these levels for eliminating Crab Swarms and/or prolonging survival?


Spells like Teleport or maintaining indefinite amounts of Rope Tricks, while technically valid for the definition of prolonging survival, are not in the spirit of the scenario, and shouldn’t be considered. Running away is not an option.

By “murder”, I don’t necessarily believe that killing is required. Simply teleporting them to another Plane via skills like, say, Initiate of the Seventhfold Veil’s Violet Veil skill is an equally valid strategy (as well as being hilarious in concept).

I am open to basically any valid Pathfinder solution to this problem, from published books. Psionics, Path of War, whatever, bring it on.

SQL – Return most recent batch of sequential rows

What i’m trying to accomplish here is pull in all the rows where there is a break of less than lets say 40 days between the next row.

So in the first example there is an uninterrupted break every month or roughly so is accounted for, so I would like the query to pull in all records here.

Example 1

ID          DATE(INT)      190402      20200205 190401      20200103 177904      20191205 177903      20191108 177902      20191001 177901      20190905 147512      20190802 147511      20190703 147510      20190603 147509      20190529 147508      20190429 147507      20190402 147506      20190306 147505      20190205 147504      20190110 147503      20181211 147502      20181115 147501      20181022 

In example two there is a gap greater than 40 days between Sep 25 2019 and January 29 2020. So I would like the query to just pull in the most recent subsequent block. In this case it would just be the top record.

Example 2

ID          DATE 189101      20200129 164705      20190925 164704      20190904 164703      20190802 164702      20190703 164701      20190605 

I have started down this road, and was looking at using LEAD to calculate the number of days between the current and previous rows. I realize I probably need to break the years out to account for the case when moving to a new year or convert it to a real date so that I can use some sql functions to calculate the difference in days for me.

After that I wasn’t sure how to go about only returning the most recent consecutive block. Thought I would ask here to see if anyone had any insight on how I to accomplish this.

What’s my most efficient use of spell slots to help my AC?

I’ve got a wizard with 11 Dex and I’m trying to figure out what my most efficient use of spell slots is to help me from getting hit.

We typically have 2-4 very difficult encounters per day and I want to balance my spell slot uses where I can provide as much firepower as needed. The monsters are generally higher CR as opposed to mobs. It’s usually approximately 1:1 in terms of PCs:NPCs and if it isn’t, it’s fairly close. Mob fights have been much less common.

Spending slots on defense with potentially diminishing returns due to the actual AC values is where I am looking to be most efficient.

Currently 5th level and have the following spells available:

1st level – mage armor and shield
2nd level – mirror image

Scenario A is casting mage armor in the morning and having AC 13 throughout the day. The difference between 10 and 13 seems minimal and that i’m likely going to get hit no matter what. But casting shield will boost to 18 which is legitimate. But then I’ve burned 2 spell slots on this method.

Scenario B is casting mirror image in a fight I think I’ll need it. Leave my AC at 10 and hope the images take the hits. Can still use shield if AC 15 will save me at some point.

I’m open to other scenarios as well, just trying to figure out the optimal strategy to get the best return on my spell slot usage for defense vs offense.

My offensive strategy

Most of my offensive spells are evocation and that’s where I’m mostly going to spending my spell slots. I’ll have a couple of control type spells that aren’t, but a lot of the instant-damage I do will be evocation.

While I try to stay away from enemies and not be in melee range, it’s going to happen at times. It’s those times (and ranged attacks), that I’m most concerned about keeping myself alive after.

Most secure linux equivalent to Shadow Defender for live CD-like nonpersistency with no traces left (or traces that are encrypted)

Virtualisation can do reasonably secure nonpersistent drives. Would rather not rely on this alone but also have a host that is nonpersistent too. A live DVD as a host leaves no traces and is physically impossible to permanently infect/own but not very practical to carry around. A live USB flash drive is more practical. Another option is grub2 configured to boot from an ISO image in an internal hard drive.

In Windows there is Shadow Defender that intercepts all writes to disk and makes them nonpersistent by storing deltas instead. The deltas are stored in an encrypted format so in the event of a power-down they cannot be recovered easily. This software is hard to bypass because it uses a driver stub that loads very early in the boot sequence. What can one do in linux that is as securely nonpersistent as Shadow Defender or better?

Is grub2 boot from an ISO image as effective?

Are bootable USB flash drives made with Rufus given any bootable ISO image as effective?

What about fsprotect, is it any better than grub2 boot from an ISO image?

Anything else?

Distros proposed for the host: anything hardened like Pure OS, Astra Linux, Kodachi. Preferably Secure Boot signed.

Which is the most hardened option?

Why the most dominant programming languages didn’t follow CSP thread model?

I was trying to ask this question in StackOverflow, but later realized that this question is more relevant to general computer science, not specific engineering problems. If you think it’s not, please let me know.

Recently I’ve found out what CSP(Communicating Sequential Processes) is.

According to the article Bell Labs and CSP Threads:

Most computer science undergraduates are forced to read Andrew Birrell’s “An Introduction to Programming with Threads.” The SRC threads model is the one used by most thread packages currently available. The problem with all of these is that they are too low-level. Unlike the communication primitive provided by Hoare, the primitives in the SRC-style threading module must be combined with other techniques, usually shared memory, in order to be used effectively…

Another article Share memory by communicating from Golang blog says:

Traditional threading models (commonly used when writing Java, C++, and Python programs, for example) require the programmer to communicate between threads using shared memory (…)

Go’s concurrency primitives – goroutines and channels – provide an elegant and distinct means of structuring concurrent software. (These concepts have an interesting history that begins with C. A. R. Hoare’s Communicating Sequential Processes.)

Based on what I’ve seen so far, because Hoare proposed CSP in 1978, it seems that there was no reason to use SRC thread model in programming languages ​​like C++(1985), Java(1995) or Python(1990).

So my question is, why the most dominant programming languages didn’t follow Hoare’s thread model?

Here’s my guesses:

  1. Most programmers back then didn’t know about Hoare’s thread model.
  2. Most programmers are used to traditional thread model.

What do you think?