Must a Ranger’s spellcasting focus be druidic, or can it be arcane (or even holy)?

This question was inspired by the question about what constitutes a bardic spellcasting focus. It has been somewhat overcome by Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything (p. 57) which explicitly describes a Ranger’s Spell focus as a druidic focus, but since not all tables will use that optional rule the question will remain up.

A Ranger’s spellcasting ability is described thusly:

By the time you reach 2nd level, you have learned to use the magical essence of nature to cast spells, much as a druid does.

As discussed here, a Ranger meets the definition of a spellcaster in that a class feature, not an item, grants the character the ability to cast spells. While that would support a Ranger using a spellcasting focus, only three spellcasting foci get explicit treatment in the rules (unless I missed a spot).

  • A Holy Symbol (Basic Rules p. 48.)
  • A Druidic Focus (Basic Rules p. 48.)
  • An Arcane Focus (Basic Rules p. 47.)

Aside: I may be making a leap. The text on druidic focus does not mention Rangers. The leap is based on the Ranger class spellcasting feature being explicitly tied to druidic spellcasting in the brief text covering that class feature.

  • Spellcasting Focus:

You can use a druidic focus (see “Equipment as a spellcasting focus for your druid spells).

  • Druidic Focus.

A druidic focus might be a sprig of mistletoe or holly, a wand or scepter made of yew or another special wood, a staff drawn whole out of a living tree, or a totem object incorporating feathers, fur, bones, and teeth from sacred animals. A druid can use such an object as a spellcasting focus.

In a case of specific over general, Paladins and Clerics are called out as being able to use a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus (Rangers were left out). This left me with two questions, only one of which is germane to the Ranger2. The Ranger gets no specific call out (unlike the Paladin) on whether the character can use for a spellcasting focus a holy symbol, a druidic focus, or an arcane focus. (Since the Ranger is a spellcaster, there’s got to be something that the class can use to substitute for material components, right?)

Why would this matter?

A lot of Ranger spells have material components. Just reviewing the SRD (which isn’t the whole list) the following spells calling out "V,S,M" in the components line:
Level 1
Alarm, Animal Friendship, Detect poison and disease, Goodberry, Jump, Longstrider
Level 2
Animal Messenger, Barkskin, Darkvision, Locate Animals or Plants, Locate Object, Pass without a trace, Spike Growth
Level 3
Nondetection, Water Breathing, Water Walk, Wind Wall
Level 4
Conjure Woodland Beings, Freedom of Movement, Locate Creature, Stoneskin
Level 5
Commune with Nature

The adventuring Ranger won’t always be in a "home" environment

Considering that terrain types generally coincide with Druid Circles …

Arctic, Coast, Desert, Forest, Grassland, Mountain, Swamp (I’d call seaborne adventure close enough to Coast for these purposes)

… it might be impossible to find mistletoe in the desert when a material component is needed.

Question restated

Can the Ranger use an arcane focus or a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus, or is the ranger constrained to the druidic focus (a holly symbol1?) based on the class’ spell casting feature being heavily druidic in nature1?


1 Please excuse the puns. Sometimes we can’t help ourselves.
2 I leave the idea of druids being priest of nature (mostly gotten around with Nature Domain clerics) for another question regarding a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus for a druid.

Must a Wizard prepare a spell to cast it as a ritual?

Ritual casting does not expend a spell slot, I know that. However, the Wizard class feature does not say anything about whether you must prepare the subject spell to cast it as a ritual. On one side, it is anyway “casting” a spell, so you can say “yes, you must prepare.” On the other hand, (although it is just about how wizards cast rituals,) your ritual involves your spellbook, so you can see the ritual ceremony “from the spellbook”, which removes the need to prepare the spell.

My question is: Must I prepare the subject spell in advance to perform it?

This is only about Wizards. Clerics, Druids, Bards have these problems nailed down explicitly. Clerics’ and Druids’ ritual casting requires you to prepare the spell in advance, and Bards’ rituals can only be drawn from what they know.

How quickly must a creature respond to the spell Sending?

Sending (PHB.274): (emphasis mine)

Casting Time: 1 action […]

Duration: 1 round […]

You send a short Message of twenty-five words or less to a creature with you are familiar. The creature hears the Message in its mind, recognizes you as the sender if it knows you, and can answer in a like manner immediately. The spell enables creatures with Intelligence scores of at least 1 to understand the meaning of your Message. […]

What constitutes immediately? The spell has a casting time of 1 action, and a duration of 1 round. Does the 1 round make up how long the caster has to send the message after the spell has been cast? Does that same time restriction apply to the receiver? Do both messages have to fit within the same round? Or does the 1 round represent the time it takes for the spell to arrive at the receiver?

Must I two-weapon fight with different weapon types or can they be matching?

I think I’m clear on two-weapon fighting (thanks to Two-Weapon Fighting & Bonus Action in 5e) except for one thing. The PHB says (p. 195):

When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. [emphasis mine]

Does a “different” weapon mean a different type of weapon, or just a different physical instance of a weapon? In other words, can I fight with two shortswords (one in each hand), or would I have to use a dagger or some other type of light weapon in my off hand?

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What must a 5e spell-scroll look like?

As a DM i would like to put spell scrolls (magical or otherwise) on exotic surfaces &/or locations. Are there any hard / R.A.W. limits on this? Both scribing & enchantment are expensive in cost and time – obviously complex – yet with minimal description of how this all looks in the end.

Somewhere in the rules (cannot find it now) it was suggested that non-magical / written spells could in or on many places – is this also the case with magical spell scrolls?

Notes: Brief research on paper suggests pressed-wood, skin-leather, cloth-cottons, hemp-grasses &/or papyrus-reeds and more – even inside glass. One assumes fairies or giants write stuff as well. Possibilities abound and seem endless.

Vampires and “must rest by day”

Both vampires and vampire spawn have the trait "chained to the grave" which includes the phase "Every vampire remains bound to its coffin, crypt, or grave site, where it must rest by day."

Vampire spawn also have the flaw, "Stake to the Heart. The vampire is destroyed if a piercing weapon made of wood is driven into its heart while it is incapacitated in its resting place." True vampires are merely paralyzed by such an attack, and no mention is made of them being incapacitated while resting.

  1. What does "must rest" by day mean? Are vampires and vampire spawn not allowed to be out of their grave sites in the day? Could they choose to be up and about (subject to the rules of damage in sunlight) with the only penalty being that they are forgoing rest, or are they rules-required to be in their grave sites?

  2. Does the state of "rest" that vampire spawn are in also incapacitate them, in the same way that an unconscious PC is incapacitated? Can they break their rest and wake up if damaged during the day? Or must characters find some way independent of it being day to incapacitate them? That is, is the incapacitation a result of the forced rest in the day, or an independent requirement in order to destroy them?

Why high and lower bit of generator must be 1?

Here is an excerpt from Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 5th edition, Chapter 3 (The data link layer), Page 213:

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[Both the high and low order bit of the generator must be 1.]

My question is how do you determine high order bit? And why high order bit and lower order bit, both must be one? From my understanding, it is used to detect burst error but is my understanding true?