Why high and lower bit of generator must be 1?

Here is an excerpt from Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 5th edition, Chapter 3 (The data link layer), Page 213:

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[Both the high and low order bit of the generator must be 1.]

My question is how do you determine high order bit? And why high order bit and lower order bit, both must be one? From my understanding, it is used to detect burst error but is my understanding true?

GTM – Bad Event Tracking Code – Pageview Hit must precede event

I’m having trouble finding a GTM error. The error states that Google Tag Manager isn’t receiving the URL/page-name in Google’s Behavior->Landing Pages report before it receives an event.

I’m not sure how to find the offending page and of course, Google can’t tell me the offending page, so trying to use Google’s Tag Assistant would mean testing every single page on the website.

The error appears to be happening on all of the major browsers, so it doesn’t seem to be browser specific.

I tried to lookup one session by matching the session duration with user sessions. The session begins at 11:58 pm and ends at 12:04 am. However, when I use Google’s Tag Assistant, it doesn’t show any errors.

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If this were the problem page, it would appear that GTM looses the page name when the session wraps over the midnight hour, but this seems improbable.

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How can I properly identify the offending page without using Google Tag Assistant on every single page?

If anything can be verified efficiently, must it be solvable efficiently on a Non-Deterministic machine?

Suppose, I wanted to verify the solution to $ 2$ ^$ 3$ . Which is $ 8$ .

The $ powers~of~2$ have only one 1-bit at the start of the binary-string.

Verify Solution Efficently

n = 8 N = 3 IF only ONE 1-bit at start of binary-string:   IF total_0-bits == N:    if n is a power_of_2:      OUTPUT solution verified, 2^3 == 8 

A solution will always be approximately $ 2$ ^$ N$ digits. Its not possible for even a non-deterministic machine to arrive to a solution with $ 2$ ^$ N$ digits faster than $ 2$ ^$ N$ time.


Can this problem be solved efficently in non-deterministic poly-time? Why not if the solutions can be verified efficently?

Must I have seen a Flower with my own eyes to use Staff Of Flowers?

I’ve said this before but The Staff Of Flowers from Xgte is a surprisingly useful item for it’s level.

But what I want to know is does the staff require me to know a flower, or just know of a flower? Specifically I want to know exactly how much knowledge of a flower is reasonable to grow it. Does one need to know the name? How it looks? Where it grows? How it can be used? All of the above?

Does one even need to know it’s a flower to make it grow? If a character has never seen Sugar Cane and hears the name and they want to know if it’s a flower or not, can they grow it? What if they know everything else about the plant except that it’s a flower and they want to confirm it?

If a decision problem is in $P$, must finding the solution be possible in polynomial-time?

Function Problem that finds the solution

  • Given integer for $ N$ .

  • Find $ 2$ integers distinct from $ N$ . (But, less than $ N$ )

  • That have a product equal to $ N$ .

This means we must exclude integers $ 1$ and $ N$ .

An algorithm that is pseudo-polynomial

N = 10  numbers = []  for a in range(2, N):     numbers.append(a)   for j in range(length(numbers)):   if N/(numbers[j]) in numbers:    OUTPUT N/(numbers[j]) X numbers[j]    break 


Soltuion Verified: 5 x 2 = N and N=10 

The algorithm that solves the Decision Problem

if AKS-primality(N) == False:   OUTPUT YES 


Since the decision problem is in $ P$ must finding a solution also be solvable in polynomial-time?

Must a decision problem in $NP$ have a complement in $Co-NP$, if I can verify the solutions to in polynomial-time?

Goldbach’s Conjecture says every even integer $ >$ $ 2$ can be expressed as the sum of two primes.

Let’s say $ N$ is our input and its $ 10$ . Which is an integer > 2 and is not odd.


1.Create list of numbers from $ 1,to~N$

2.Use prime-testing algorithm for creating a second list of prime numbers

3.Use my 2_sum solver that allows you to use primes twice that sum up to $ N$

for j in range(list-of-primes)):   if N-(list-of-primes[j]) in list-of-primes:    print('yes')    break 

4.Verify solution efficently

if AKS-primality(N-(list-of-primes[j])):     if AKS-primality(list-of-primes[j]):         print('Solution is correct') 


yes 7 + 3 Solution is correct 


If the conjecture is true, then the answer will always be Yes. Does that mean it can’t be in $ Co-NP$ because the answer is always Yes?

Must a monk’s Flurry of Blows attacks occur after the initial (and extra) attack from the Attack action?

Looking at the wording of Flurry of Blows, I may be overthinking it, but the description of the feature (PHB, p. 78) says:

Immediately after you take the Attack action on your turn, you can spend 1 ki point to make two unarmed strikes as a bonus action.

Does this imply that a 5th-level (or higher) monk must finish the Attack action (initial attack + extra attack) and only afterward can optionally use the Flurry of Blows bonus action immediately?

Or does “take” mean that a monk must start/commit to doing an Attack action, and before finishing the Attack action (or even make any attack rolls), they can initiate Flurry of Blows to make two more unarmed strikes? Can the Flurry of Blows attacks be before (or be interspersed in any order with) the two attacks from the Attack action?

Somewhat relevant is Mike Mearls’ October 2014 tweet that movement can occur in-between/during Flurry of Blows attacks.

My thought is to gain the benefits of the Open Hand monk’s knockdown ability tied to Flurry of Blows, and benefit from the prone status on the two attacks from the Attack action.


  1. First Flurry of Blows attack; target fails Dex save and is knocked prone
  2. First attack from the Attack action – target dies
  3. Move to new target and use second Flurry of Blows attack; target fails Dex save and becomes prone
  4. Second attack from the Attack action

(Alternatively using the Flurry benefits to remove reactions, etc.)

To what level of detail must you know the contents of a demiplane to connect to it?

The Demiplane spell states (emphasis mine):

Each time you cast this spell, you can create a new demiplane, or have the shadowy door connect to a demiplane you created with a previous casting of this spell. Additionally, if you know the Nature and contents of a demiplane created by a casting of this spell by another creature, you can have the shadowy door connect to its demiplane instead.

How exact must your knowledge of the contents of a demiplane be before you can use this clause in the spell to connect to it?

Some examples of scenarios where you may or may not know enough detail:

  • You know the demiplane solely contains a particular creature, but you don’t know everything that’s in that creature’s pockets.
  • You know the demiplane solely contains a giant pile of gold coins, and roughly how large it is, but don’t know exactly how many coins there are.
  • The demiplane contains 20 distinct items, and you know 19 of them.

Must Sentinel stop an opponent from running away due to Dissonant Whispers based movement?

Situation: A bard stands behind a Fighter. The Fighter has the Sentinel feat.
enter image description here The Fighter is battling an enemy in a five-foot-wide corridor.
The Bard casts Dissonant Whispers and the Enemy fails their saving throw.
The Fighter has not yet used a reaction, and executes an Opportunity Attack(OA) as the enemy leaves the adjacent square using the enemy’s own movement.
The OA hits.
Does the Enemy:
a. Stop running away?
b. Keep running away?
c. Run away or stop at the Fighter’s option?

  1. When you hit a creature with an opportunity attack, the creature’s speed becomes 0 for the rest of the turn. (Sentinel , PHB, Ch. 6)

I think that the answer is (a), but are there rulings or errata, or Sage Advice that provides the Fighter the option to not stop the enemy on a hit with that OA?

1. Attribution for the three images: they are tokens of a D&D 5e NPC noble, a drow fighter, and an efreet from the roll20 compendium. I think this is fair use. If not, please adivse and I’ll change the images.
2. I was somewhat surprised to not see a question on the interaction of this spell and this feat