What is the meaning of the mutation rate in genetic algorithms?

Let us suppose that we have a mutation rate of 5%. What does this mean?

  • Each gene of each individual has 5% of probability of change to another value? At the end, around 5% of the genes of each individual in the population will be changed.
  • Each individual in the population has 5% of probability of having a random gene changed to antoher value? At the end, 5% of the population will have a change in some of its genes.

Besides that…Should I apply the mutation operator over all individuals or only to the children generated by the crossover operator?

Genome mutation probability

I am taking an extra course this semester and we were given a series of questions for exam preparation. But I was unable to attend the discussion session and so I have no access to the solutions. I hope that can get some help here.


Within an Evolutionary Algorithm a parent individual X(i) with a genome of L bit has created N offsprings X(i) = Y(i)n identical to the parent X(i).

To yield the new generation Y(i+1)n the mutation operator is modifying each of these N offspring Y(i)n by flipping each of the N∗L bits with a probability of p.

Derive a formula that calculates the probability Q for the case that none of the N new individuals Y(i+1)n is identical to the parent X(i).

I’ve got absolutely no idea on how to approach this. Any suggestions?

Bloodline Mutation Variants & Transmutation

Looking at the Sorcerer Bloodline Mutation Variants from Paizo’s Magic Tactics Toolbox. Do either of the three variants (Havoc, Intensity, or Piercing) have any effect while ‘you’ are under the effects of a transmutation/polymorph spell?

Are there any other Mutations (or similar variants) that have been published that would affect being polymorph as such?

Object Oriented Design – Genome Class / Mutation Class


I am having an argument with my friend on how to start implementing a Genetic Algorithm called NEAT (NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies).

Method 1

I am arguing in favor of having two classes, one for Genome and one for Mutation. This Mutation class will provide methods for mutating genomes by taking a genome as input and returning a mutated genome. Furthermore, this implementation will have classes for each process like Selection, Crossover etc.


  • This way we will have the option to derive from Mutation class later on to implement various kinds of mutations.
  • I think it will also help with better unit testing.


  • More classes
  • Does not model real life (for example, a human can walk like a genome can mutate)

Method 2

My friend wants to have only one class for this, the Genome class. In this implementation mutate will be a method of Genome class which will return a mutated genome as output.


  • This will help reduce complexity.
  • It will also model that a genome can mutate, just like a human can walk.
  • It will also follow convention (seeing code from already implemented solutions).


  • Less separation of concern, therefore, harder unit testing.
  • Harder to extend later when different kinds of mutations need to be added.

Am I correctly interpreting how the Blood Intensity bloodline mutation works?

I just want to make sure I understand Blood Intensity correctly.

The Blood Intensity bloodline mutation says:

Whenever you cast a bloodrager or sorcerer spell that deals damage, you can increase its maximum number of damage dice by an amount equal to your Strength or Charisma modifier, whichever is higher.

So if my Charisma modifier is 5 and I cast Ear-Piercing Scream (1d6 damage) using Blood Intensity, it would now deal 6d6 damage, correct?

Mutation para criar um registro com relacionamento


Prisma GraphQL GraphQL Yoga NodeJS PostGresql

Estou tentando fazer uma mutation que cadastre uma pessoa e um endereço para essa pessoa. Porem Pessoa e Endereço são tabelas separadas, e eu não estou conseguindo fazer o relacionamento entre elas.

Na documentação do Prisma é orientado a utilizar o Create porem não funciona, e sempre chego no mesmo erro.

Documentação: https://www.prisma.io/docs/prisma-client/basic-data-access/writing-data-JAVASCRIPT-rsc6/#nested-object-writes


{   "data": null,   "errors": [     {       "message": "Variable \"$  _v0_data\" got invalid value { cnpj: \"059.852.698.22\", nome: \"Greice K Tomasi\", user: { connect: [Object] }, create: { endereco: [Object] } }; Field value.endereco of required type EnderecoCreateOneInput! was not provided.\nVariable \"$  _v0_data\" got invalid value { cnpj: \"059.852.698.22\", nome: \"Greice K Tomasi\", user: { connect: [Object] }, create: { endereco: [Object] } }; Field \"user\" is not defined by type PessoaCreateInput.\nVariable \"$  _v0_data\" got invalid value { cnpj: \"059.852.698.22\", nome: \"Greice K Tomasi\", user: { connect: [Object] }, create: { endereco: [Object] } }; Field \"create\" is not defined by type PessoaCreateInput.",       "locations": [],       "path": []     }   ] 

Estou tentando desta forma:


 type Pessoa {   id: ID ! @unique   cnpj: String!   nome: String!   endereco: Endereco! } type Endereco {   id: ID ! @unique   rua: String!   numero: String   cep: String!   pessoa: Pessoa! } 


type Mutation {  createPessoa(cnpj: String!, nome: String!, endereco: EnderecoInput!): Pessoa!  }  type Pessoa {   id: ID !   cnpj: String!   nome: String!   endereco: Endereco! }  type Endereco {   id: ID !   rua: String!   numero: String   cep: String! }  input EnderecoInput {   rua: String!   numero: String   cep: String! } 


async function createPessoa (_, args, ctx, info) {   const userId = getUserId(ctx)   return ctx.db.mutation.createPessoa({     data: {       cnpj: args.cnpj,       nome: args.nome,       user: {         connect: {  id: userId }       },       endereco: {         rua: args.endereco.rua,         numero: args.endereco.numero,         cep: args.endereco.cep         }      }   }) }  module.exports = {   createPessoa } 

Estou tentando criar populando a Mutation desta forma:

mutation {   createPessoa (     nome:"Greice K Tomasi",      cnpj:"059.852.698.22",     endereco: {       rua: "Germano Klann",       numero: "547",       cep: "89254220"     }   )   {     nome   } } 

Coloquei o Projeto no Git, caso alguém preferir olhar por la:


(Para rodar o projeto precisa do Docker)

Passos para start: Dentro da pasta do projeto:

  • npm install

  • docker-compose up

Em outro terminal (com o comando docker-compose up rodando)

  • prisma deploy

How to avoid data mutation?

Hello how i can avoide the state mutation in this code

I have tried by Object.assign but didn’t worked

  getAllRules,   state =>     Object.keys(state)       .filter(item => !includes(item, RULES_EXCLUDE) && state[item])       .reduce((obj, key) => {         obj[key] = state[key]         return obj       }, {}) ) 

computed свойство вызывается раньше, чем отработает action и mutation

Проблема вот какая. Есть примерно такое:

async created() {   await this.$  store.dispatch('UserInfo/loadUserInfo'); // загрузка инфы о юзере }, computed: {   userInfo() { // это вызывается раньше, чем то, что в хуке created(), как следствие, ошибки в консоль и undefined повсюду.     return this.$  store.state.UserInfo.userInfo;   }, } 

Я не могу понять, как разрешить этот косяк. Как заставить вычисляемое свойство отработать после того, что в created()

Is it possible to represent mutation of object-graph efficiently with immutable states?

I am practicing using of immutable object in C++. My personal goal is representing generic object graph (in heap) with sequence of immutable graphs.

Building the multi-version graph itself isn’t that much hard. The problem is performance. Brute-force versioning needs full copy of graph, and this was not acceptable.

I tried to share unchanged nodes. But in this case, I got a new problem; references. Reference to other object must be updated in whole graph. This needs visiting all nodes for each time I derive a new graph version. And this mutates the nodes with references, so they also should be derived (by copying). Performance won’t be better much than brute-force copying.

As far as I can imagine, there’s no real efficient way to represent mutation of object graph with immutable states. So I am asking for some idea on this.

Is it possible to represent mutation of object graph efficiently with immutable state?

Accessing Mutation Result in Angular Apollo Graphql

I am new to Graphql and I am using the Apollo client with Angular 7.

I have a mutation in the server that I am using for authentication.This mutation generates returns an access token and a refresh token:

@Injectable({   providedIn: "root" }) export class LoginTokenAuthGQL extends Apollo.Mutation<   LoginTokenAuth.Mutation,   LoginTokenAuth.Variables > {   document: any = gql`     mutation loginTokenAuth($  input: LoginAuthInput!) {       loginTokenAuth(input: $  input) {         accessToken         refreshToken       }     }   `; } 

I am running this mutation in my sign-in component like this:

 onLoginSubmit() {     const email = this.loginForm.controls['userEmail'].value;     const password = this.loginForm.controls['userPassword'].value;      console.log('Sending mutation with', email, password);      this.loginGQL.mutate({       input: {         email,         password,         userType: AuthUserType.Crm       }     }).pipe(       map((response) => response.data )     ).subscribe(       (output: LoginTokenAuth.Mutation) => {         console.log('Access token', output.loginTokenAuth.accessToken);         console.log('Refresh token', output.loginTokenAuth.refreshToken);          console.log(this.apollo.getClient().cache);       },       ((error: any) => {         console.error(error);       })     );   } 

Once I get the access token I will need to add it as header on my requests.

From what I read from the Apollo Client all results from queries and mutations are cached locally in the client. But it is not clear to me how can I access them and add it to the apollo-link.

To be more clear I would like to do this in my Graphql module:

const http = httpLink.create({uri: '/graphql'});  const auth = setContext((_, { headers }) => {    // get the authentication token from the cache   const token = ???    if (!token) {     return {};   } else {     return {       headers: headers.append('Authorization', `Bearer $  {token}`)     };   } });