Which type of PVC sheet do I need for my application?

What is PVC (PolyVinyl Chloride)?

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is an economical and versatile thermoplastic polymer widely used in building and construction industry to produce door and window profiles, pipes (drinking and wastewater), wire and cable insulation, medical devices, etc. It is the world’s third largest thermoplastic material by volume after polyethylene and polypropylene.

It is a white, brittle solid material available in powder form or granules. Due to its versatile properties, such as lightweight, durable, low cost and easy processability, PVC sheet is now replacing traditional building materials like wood, metal, concrete, rubber, ceramics, etc. in several applications.

Basic Forms of PVC(including PVC rod)
Polyvinyl Chloride is widely available in two broad categories: Flexible and Rigid. But, there are more types like CPVC, PVC-O and PVC-M.

Plasticized or Flexible PVC (Density: 1.1-1.35 g/cm3): Flexible PVC is formed by the addition of compatible plasticizers to PVC which lower the crystallinity. These plasticizers act like lubricants resulting in a much clearer and flexible plastic. This type of PVC is sometimes called as PVC-P.

Unplasticized or Rigid PVC (Density: 1.3-1.45 g/cm3): It is a stiff and cost-effective plastic with high resistance to impact, water, weather, chemicals and corrosive environments. This type of PVC is also known as UPVC, PVC-U or uPVC.

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride or perchlorovinyl: It is prepared by chlorination of PVC resin. High chlorine content imparts high durability, chemical stability and flame retardancy. CPVC can withstand a wider range of temperatures.

Molecular Oriented PVC or PVC-O: It is formed by reorganizing the amorphous structure of PVC-U into a layered structured. Bi-axially oriented PVC has enhanced physical characteristics (stiffness, fatigue resistance, lightweight, etc.).

Modified PVC or PVC-M: It is an alloy of PVC formed by addition of modifying agents, resulting in enhanced toughness and impact properties.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most widely used polymers in the world. Due to its versatile nature, PVC, or other plastic rod, is used extensively across a broad range of industrial, technical and everyday applications including widespread use in building, transport, packaging, electrical/electronic and healthcare applications.

PVC, including soft PVC sheet roll, is a very durable and long lasting material which can be used in a variety of applications, either rigid or flexible, white or black and a wide range of colours in between.

The essential raw materials for PVC are derived from salt and oil. The electrolysis of salt water produces chlorine, which is combined with ethylene (obtained from oil) to form vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Molecules of VCM are polymerised to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are incorporated to make a customised PVC compound .

The PVC production process consists of 5 steps:

The extraction of salt and hydrocarbon resources
The production of ethylene and chlorine from these resources
The combination of chlorine and ethylene to make the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
The polymerisation of VCM to make poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC)
The blending of PVC polymer with other materials to produce different formulations providing a wide range of physical properties.

PVC sheet, PE sheet and PP sheet have excellent corrosion resistance and weather resistance. The working temp is 33 deg F to 160 deg F. and the forming temperatures of 245 deg F. It is good electrical and thermal insulator and has a self-extinguishing per UL Test 94. PVC applications are almost unlimited. It’s the most widely used member of the vinyl family. It is excellent when used for corrosion-resistant tanks, ducts, fume hoods, and pipe. Ideal for self-supporting tanks, fabricated parts, tank linings, and spacers. It is not UV stabilized and has a tolerance of +or 10%. Not FDA approved materials. Colors available: Gray PVC Type 1 Sheet, White PVC, Clear PVC.

Why You Need to Swap Out Your Galvanized Pipes

What are galvanized pipes?

Galvanized pipes are steel pipes that have been dipped in a protective zinc coating to prevent corrosion and rust. Galvanized steel pipe was commonly installed in homes built before 1960. When it was invented, galvanized pipe was an alternative to lead pipe for water supply lines. Today, however, we have learned that decades of exposure to water will cause galvanized pipes to corrode and rust on the inside.

What do galvanized pipes look like?

When first installed, galvanized pipes looks similar to a nickel in color. But as it ages, galvanized pipe may appear much duller, lighter, or darker, depending on its environment. We’ve also seen homes where the water pipes have been painted, so it can be difficult to tell at first glance.

How can I tell if I have galvanized pipes?

If you can’t tell by looking at your pipes, there is a quick test to tell if they are galvanized. Simply grab a flat head screwdriver and a strong magnet. Start by finding your water line and scratch the outside of the welded steel pipe with the screwdriver. Compare your results:

Copper

The scratched area will look like a copper penny.
A magnet will NOT stick to it.

Plastic
The scratched area will appear ivory or white in color.
A magnet will NOT stick to it

Galvanized steel
The scratched area will have a silver-gray color.
A strong magnet will stick to it.

Lead
The scratched area will have a dull silver-gray color, and the metal will usually be soft and easy to scratch. A magnet will NOT stick to it. Lead LSAW welded pipes are easy to bend and may be misshapen. If you have lead pipes, we recommend replacement if at all possible.

Be sure to scratch test your pipes in multiple areas. It is not uncommon to have more than one type of piping on your water line.

Do galvanized pipes contain lead?

The galvanized pipes installed on water lines between 1880 and 1960 were dipped in molten, naturally occurring zinc. Naturally occurring zinc is impure, so these pipes, such as boiler pipe, fluid pipe, coating steel pipe, were bathed in zinc that also contained lead and other impurities. The zinc coating elongated the life of the steel pipes, but added small amount of lead and other substances that could potentially harm inhabitants.

Additionally, if your galvanized pipes were ever connected to lead plumbing (including service lines) there is more cause for concern. The corrosion inside galvanized steel pipes could have trapped small pieces of the lead. Even if the lead piping was removed years ago, the galvanized steel pipes could still periodically release the trapped lead into the water flow. Chicago didn’t stop using lead pipes for service lines until 1986, and an estimated 400,000 lead service lines are still in use in Chicago alone.

The only way to ensure that lead is not mobilized from plumbing to tap in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing and any lead service lines.

What other problems can galvanized pipes cause?

Low Water Pressure
Due to the restriction of the line, corrosion in galvanized pipes can cause lower water pressure throughout your home.

Uneven Distribution of Water
If some of your taps have low water pressure, but others don’t, this could be a symptom of galvanized pipes. Corrosion can build up unevenly. Also, part of the galvanized steel piling pipe line could have been replaced in your home, but not everywhere.

Discoloration of Water
Galvanized SSAW welded pipes can release iron and cause discoloration. A clear indicator of this is a brown stain on a porcelain sink.

Leaks
Given enough time, galvanized pipes will rust through and cause more damage to your home.

I need some advice on GSA ser please

Hello everyone i am new in black hat seo and a tool like GSA ser, i would like to have advice from you , i have already purchased gsa ser from the official site … What extra software do I need for gsa ser to start providing me with some good links to rank my e-com website please
I mean some tools like captcha breakerbreaker etc…..

Thanks in advance 

Why you need beauty makeup mirrors? Why handheld mirror and vanity mirror are importa

Why you need beauty makeup mirrors? Why handheld mirror and vanity mirror are important?
Let’s face it ladies, most of us don’t have access to a personal on-call makeup artist. We do the best we can to cover any imperfections and enhance our looks, it’s a daily ritual. When it comes to the choice between a lighted and an unlighted makeup mirror, there’s really no contest. Today’s LED lighting technology is so advanced, that it’s as close to true daylight as you can get without stepping outside your front door. In this article, we will discuss the importance of lighted beauty makeup mirror.
1. We Need Lights
You never know if there will be sufficient lighting when you travel. A lighted mirror will show us the imperfections we will not see otherwise. A stray hair, too much foundation or uneven eyeliner. The light on the mirror is critical to applying cover ups and foundations so you can see everything is blended perfectly and to make sure the colors are right.
2. We Need To See Every Detail
A 10x magnification mirror is also great for shaving. The magnification allows you to zoom in on the area you’re shaving, so you make sure you get every last hair. These mirrors can be especially useful if you’re used to using a mirror that’s far away, like a traditional vanity mirror. The magnification allows you to see without having to hover over a big mirror. Moreover, if you don’t wear contacts, you may not put on makeup at all because you just can’t see anything when you take off your glasses. With a magnification mirror, you can put on a face full of makeup without ever needing to put on your glasses. A 10X lighted makeup mirror will give you the perfect lighting for flawless makeup application.
3. Makeup Anywhere At Anytime
If you choose a compact mirror, you can apply your makeup anywhere and anytime. The lighting allows you to see your face clearly even if the lighting in the room is poor. Apart from lighting, you may get sweaty and oily in summer, this is when you need to refine the makeup on a car or at a cafe. With a portable and light makeup mirror, you can wear a flawless makeup everywhere. If your makeup mirror is Tri-fold, you are also able to adjust the angle and height of the mirror.
4. Not Limited To Beauty
Who said magnifying makeup mirror is only for young ladies? Magnifying mirrors and LED lights are also helpful to the elderly and those who have relatively weak eyesight. With 10X or 7X magnification, they can clearly see their faces and eyes. Very helpful and user-friendly to those in need!
We all want to look gorgerous and stunning with a perfect makeup. If that’s your case too, a beauty makeup mirror is definitely what you need. You can choose a portable handheld mirror with LED lights and magnification. You can also choose a vanity mirror with 10X magnification for daily makeups. At GadgetiCloud, we have what you wish for! Check out our makeup mirrors now!
Neck Massage Benefits
I am sure we have all experienced it once, if not more. You encounter a hindrance in your normal routine, are forced to drop everything, and then painfully set your way back to your real track. Do you know what that is? Of course, neck pain! While not everyone takes it seriously, some people have experienced it. As the U.S. national institute of health statistics mentions, every 15% of Americans face neck pain.
15% of Americans are Troubled By and/or Experience Neck Pain. How Zarifa Massage Helps

Massaging routinely with Shiatsu Massagers helps with keeping your body free from pain. Aside from other pains, particularly neck pain, this massage works by focusing on the upper back and shoulders.
Additional Massage Benefits
Relief from neck pain is not the only benefit that is offered by neck massage. With regular massaging your joints stay limber, there are reduced chances of muscle pulls near you neck and shoulders. Regular massaging improves posture and flexibility, lowers heart rate and blood pressure, increases motion range, encourages relaxation, relieves stress, and leads to a healthy mindset.
What are the benefits of neck massage?
Since neck pain is a common concern that most people face, the solution to it is also rather simple. Applying some pressure on the neck and shoulder muscles reduces muscular tension and can help deal with regular stress and pain. Here are some benefits offered by a neck massage.
Muscle soreness recovery
Massaging sore parts of the body can improve the flow of oxygen and blood help reduce inflammation and soothe the pain. Additionally, this massage encourages the release of endorphins which are the natural painkillers of the body. Neck massage then helps improve muscle soreness and better the range of motion.
Read more : Why does pressing on sore muscles feel good?
Strengthens the immune system.
Regular neck massager also improves the level of lymphocytes and white blood cells that help to fight infections and illnesses. Massaging the area encourages activation of the lymphatic system that removes and filters harmful materials from the body. With harmful substances out of the body, your body remains healthy and strong.
Encourages positive moods.
Neck massage does not just benefit your body, but it also elevates your mood greatly. Studies show that massaging improves dopamine and serotonin levels greatly. So, when your body relaxes, does your nervous system. As our heart rate and breathing are lowered, massaging helps to realign your entire body. Regular massage treatments are offered by companies to improve their health, mood, and job satisfaction.
Reduces eye strain and migraines.
Being a natural alternative to medications for migraines and eye strains, massages do not have any side effects. Regular massaging can help relieve muscle spasms and improves blood circulation. With better blood circulation, pressure in the head is reduced that helps to reduce migraines. With massaging, people experienced a decrease in the headache, and pain associated with the shoulder, and the neck.

What is sonic cleansing?
Let’s start by explaining what “sonic cleansing” is. The term originally comes from the fact that the bristles on the head of the cleansing brush oscillate at a precision-tuned sonic frequency (which happens to be 127 Hz, if you’re keeping score at home). The first “sonic” skin care device was the Clarisonic brush which was created by the key inventor of the Soni-care toothbrush which used oscillating bristles to clean teeth.
The basic idea is that the rapid movement of the brush bristles gently deep cleans skin by removing makeup residue, clearing pores, and lightly exfoliating skin. In addition, some products claim that they increase the absorption of skin care ingredients.
You need to understand, however, that not all “sonic” cleansers are really sonic and that there’s not a lot of evidence that these expensive devices are much better than a simple wash cloth.
Oscillating nylon brushes
There are three basic types of sonic facial cleanser. We’ll describe each type and give a few examples.
The most common ones consist of a nylon brush that is driven by a battery operated motor. The biggest difference between these is whether the brush oscillates or rotates. There are also non-brush type cleansers. But let’s start with the oscillating brush.
This type uses a combination of moveable and stationary nylon bristles which are 10mm in length. The bristles move back and forth at a rate greater than 300 motions per second. This movement generates enough force to deep clean skin without damaging it. The true sonic cleansers are the ones that oscillate.
Clarisonic
Clarisonic is the “mother of all sonic cleansers.” It’s the most expensive brand but they offer the widest range of products. They vary by speed and power and by which products and accessories they come with.
Their face cleansing collection starts with the Mia for $99, the Mia 2 for $149, the Plus for $225 and a Pro model that’s apparently only for sale to dermatologists and aestheticians. The main claim for the product line is that it “Cleanses 6x better than hands alone.”
They also have a special version designed to work with their skin brightening cream. It claims to provide “10x reduction of hyper pigmentation vs manual treatment.” But of course it’s sold with health care products and personal care products that works against hyper pigmentation so it’s not just the brush the provides the benefit.
They also offer the Pedi Sonic which is designed for your feet. It has a smoothing disk like a buffing stone which is designed to work on tough calloused skin.
Lastly there’s the Opal for $185. Instead of a simple cleanser this is a “sonic infusion” device that’s designed to improve the penetration of anti-aging ingredients.
Clinique Sonic System
Phillip mentioned the Clinique sonic system which, at $135, is slightly less expensive than the some of the Clarisonic line. It features an oscillating brush with a dual angled head and its claim to fame is its gentleness. See their website for a video showing it’s gentle enough to use on a flower.
Nutra Sonic Cleansing brush
And, finally, if you want true oscillation at a bargain then look for the Nutra Sonic brush which retails for about $100. Now let’s look at the rotating brushes.
Rotating nylon brushes
The rotating brush also uses 10mm nylon bristles but these move in a circular motion rather than back and forth. These products tend to be much cheaper and people have raised concerns whether they work as well.
Spa Sonic
As we explained the “sonic” name comes from the oscillation frequency. Of course that only applies to the oscillating brushes, not rotating brushes like this one. This is one of the pricier rotating brushes at $50 but their website claims it’s been tested and is comparable to the Clarisonic.
Proactive Deep Cleansing Brush
At $30, the Proactive Deep Cleansing brush is an affordable alternative although there’s nothing particularly noteworthy about the claims it makes.
Ulta Dual Action Cleansing system
Similarly, there’s the Ulta version for $25
Olay Pro-X Advanced Cleansing System
This one costs anywhere between $20 to $50 depending on which products you purchase with the brush.
Conair Facial Scrub Brush
Our final example of rotating brushes is the Conair Facial Scrub Brush which has the dubious distinction of allowing you to rotate the brush clockwise or counterclockwise. I don’t know WHAT difference that would make – it’s not like your skin can tell the difference. You can pick this up for only $15.
Non-brush cleansers
There are also “Non-brush” cleansers. These are less common – instead of a nylon brush they channel pulsations through soft silicone filaments or some sort of non woven pad. So even though the technology is different these are probably more similar to the oscillating brushes.
Using a fan in warm weather can make even a long day at the desk or on the porch almost bearable, even with plenty of beverages on hand. However, you don’t always have one available to you, or you may not have batteries.
Fortunately, a fan is a relatively easy machine to make, as it is just a motor attached to a power source with some kind of blade attached to the motor. It also helps to have some kind of stand. You can make a homemade fan out of nearly anything you may already have on hand.
For reference, a mini fan is really no more than a mini vacuum cleaner with the air directed the other way owing to the orientation of the curve of the fan blades in relation to its direction of rotation. Nevertheless, the invention of the electric fan preceded the invention of the vacuum cleaner in its more-or-less present form by a number of years. Build a set of fan blades which attaches to the armature on your motor. For example, cut a piece of cardboard so that it has symmetrical blades, or make a CD blade as outlined in the “CD Blades” section, or find a fan blade template online. Make a hole you can attach to the armature on the motor. Build a small stand out of wood or coat hanger so that you can mount the fan blade and point it toward you when in use. Mount the motor on top of the stand. Glue or tape the fan blades to the armature of the motor. Attach wires to the positive and negative terminals of the motor. Push the bare ends of the wires through the terminals on the motors, then twist the bare wires back around themselves. Attach the wires to a power source. Tape or glue them to batteries, with the positive terminal on the positive end of the battery, and vice-versa. Alternately, strip the USB wires with the male end, then cut off all except for the black and red wires. Attach the red wire to the positive terminal on the motor, the black to the negative.
CD Fan Blades
Cut eight lines into the CD at regular intervals, cutting only the shiny part, but not the clear plastic ring in the middle. Light the candle and hold the clear plastic ring over it. This will warm up the CD allowing you to bend and twist it. Bend all of the blades to about a 30-degree angle. Don’t hole it over too long or it will melt completely. You may need to spin the CD over the candle a few times to successfully make the shape. Hold the CD and let it cool for a few minutes. Piece the center of the cork with a needle to create a hole for the armature. Use a needle about the same size as the motor’s armature. Push the cork into the hole in the center of the CD. Glue the cork into place, and you now have a device you can attach to your motor.
What are gold facial roller?

Face rollers are tools that some people use to massage the face. They often have a smooth, cool surface and are available in a variety of materials, such as:

  • crystal, including jade, rose quartz, and amethyst
  • stainless steel (sometimes known as ice rollers)
  • plastic

Some of these materials are more durable than others. For example, crystal can chip or crack over time.
A person uses a face roller by holding the handle and rolling the massage head over their skin.
People claim that face rollers have a variety of benefits for the skin and a person’s overall well-being. While there is not much scientific evidence for the benefits of using face rollers, limited evidence suggests they may:

  • improve blood flow to the face
  • reduce puffiness
  • boost mood
  • temporarily tighten the skin

Here is what the research says about face rollers and their benefits.
Improved circulation
According to a small 2018 study, using a roller to massage the face can increase blood circulation in the face.
The study looked at how short- and long-term massage treatments affected circulation. After one 5 minute massage with a face roller, researchers noted increased blood flow to the immediate area. After 5 weeks of regular facial massage, they recorded increased vasodilation in response to heat.
This suggests that regular massage could improve circulation overall.

Have plots labeled as “1.” “0.75” “0.5” “0.25”. Need plots labeled as “b=1.00” “b=0.75” “b=0.50” “b=0.25”

f is a function a single variable (x) and it depends on a parameter (b). It was plotted as shown below. I am looking for a modality to change the labels. Currently, the plots are labeled as "1." "0.75" "0.5" "0.25". I would like to include the symbol for the parameter in the label and to write each associated numerical value using two decimals, i.e., "b=1.00" "b=0.75" "b=0.50" "b=0.25".

f[x_] := ((1 + x^2) b)/2

Plot[Evaluate[ Table[Labeled[f[x], b], {b, {0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00}}]], {x, 0, 1}]

I need a bit of help with understanding how I should start making a text engine

I was trying to make a textbox engine for my RPG using Gamemaker Studio 2 as my game engine, and so far I have managed to make a pretty good-looking animation for when the textbox comes in and out. I think it looks really nice…

…However, I’ve come across some complications when it comes to the actual text itself… I have NO IDEA on where I should start with that…

You see, a basic rundown of what I wanted to do was keep the main lines of dialog on separate scripts (labeled as TEXT_EN and TEXT_JP, for the potential different languages), and have the dialog box object print the specific line from the TEXT scripts depending on which one I call, basically how UNDERTALE and DELTARUNE handled it (from what I could tell, they relied on arrays but that’s all I know, I’m not sure on how to utilize them to my advantage).

I’m not sure on how I should start doing that… And I tried following along with some guys on Youtube who were better at it, but it didn’t really feel right to me… I was planning on having different languages with my game, and these tutorials didn’t have that in mind… If any of you guys could point me in the right direction, I would GLADLY appreciate it. Thank you for your time.

Everything You Need To Know About High Bay Lighting

What is high bay lighting?
High bay lighting is the go-to solution in many workplaces for achieving bright and uniform illumination across large, high-ceilinged indoor spaces. It’s most often found in warehouses, department stores, manufacturing areas and sports halls.
But what is LED high bay light exactly, and how does it differ from other high-intensity lighting solutions?
Rather than any single fixture style, the term ‘high bay lighting’ refers to the positioning of the luminaires, and as such it covers a broad and flexible range of lamp types and fittings. As a rule of thumb, MatePro UFO highbay light is usually the best option for any indoor setting where the floor-to-ceiling height measures 8m (roughly 25’) or taller.
For less lofty spaces, low bays (or even a series of appropriately arranged floodlights) may be enough to get the job done. But, where indoor work areas span a great deal of vertical and horizontal space, the lighting solution needs to be both powerful and flexible.
In this guide, we’ll tell you everything you need to know about the various types of high bay lighting configurations available, and the sorts of environments they’re best suited to.

What’s the difference between high bay and low bay lighting?
Low bay lighting setups, as the name suggests, are more commonly used where there’s less vertical distance for the light to cover. In these situations, lower mounting positions will often allow for a shallower lighting angle, making it easier to illuminate vertical surfaces or to create specific lighting effects in smaller zones.
High bays are most often found in warehouses, gantries, above a large shop or conference floors, at sports facilities, in expansive factory or workshop environments…anywhere that needs uniform, brilliant illumination to maximise visibility and light quality over a wide area.
Apart from the different mounting altitudes, another key contrast between high bay and low bay light setups is that high bays tend to rely on more careful consideration of layout, fittings and components.
T-line linear highbay light must be chosen and positioned to ensure the light they cast is strong, uniform, and equally effective at hitting both vertical and horizontal surfaces from a wider angle.
To achieve this, high bay lighting tends to demand the more exacting placement of lamps and reflectors. When configured properly, high bay setups can achieve superb quality and intensity of light across the entirety of a wide, tall space.

LED stands for light-emitting diode which is a light conductor that emits white light when a current flows through it. LED panels are commonly used in video and photography as a directional light source. LED’s are known for their powerful white light, low energy consumption, and durability.
LED panel lights have become a popular option for creators in all different industries. Due to their practical and versatile design, there has been a surge in market demand for light panels. However, not all lights are created equal.

The LED Bulkheads’ cool white light is an attractive alternative to the harsh orange output of SOX lamps. With efficiency comparable to that of fluorescent lighting, the LED Bulkhead is smaller than other lamps of the same output. Its instant start, with no warming-up period is a significant advantage for event triggered security lighting. The LED Bulkhead, rated at up to 60W, is the most powerful of a range that starts from 20W. With supply inputs ranging from 23.5W to 70.6W, this range has an electrical efficiency of 90%. The LEDs typically yield 100 lumens per watt and the light has a colour temperature of 5000 to 7500 K.

LED Tri-proof Lights are durable and eco-friendly alternative lighting systems to traditional fluorescent LED tube lights. LED Tri-proof Lights are designed to withstand severe environments and will help you reduce your energy consumption by up to 80%.
LED Tri-proof Lights are specifically built to withstand conditions susceptible to water, dust and corrosion impacts. Our Lighting tri-proof Lights are Incredibly durable and long lasting, they are highly resistant to heavy impacts.