Fundamental difference in security research in Cloud platform VM and normal machine

I am trying to study the effects of various network based attacks in an Openstack Cloud environment that I have setup with few machines. However, what would be the fundamental difference between a VM created using Openstack and a normal VM created using a single machine?

Both of the VMs are ought to have the same specs. The major difference that I see is that the attacks done on VM in Openstack would take a different network route (due to distributed resource sharing) as compared to direct attack on a VM on a single physical machine but wouldn’t the effect on both the targets be same?

What can I remove from a normal installation of Ubuntu 18.04? [duplicate]

This question already has an answer here:

  • How can I strip down Ubuntu? 10 answers

I just did a normal installation of Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS and would like to know if I really need all the apps installed by default and if I can remove most of them without breaking the system. Are there some apps that I shouldn’t mess with? My goal is to keep the OS as pure and uncluttered as possible.

FYI all I do is watch YouTube, check my emails and play a few games.

How should Thaumaturgy’s “three times as loud as normal” be interpreted?

This may be a bit of a silly question, but it came up during playing and left me wondering. The spell description states that your voice booms “three times as loud as normal”, but it leaves open how the volume of a voice is measured.

Two common ways to measure the volume of sound is to measure the pressure difference the sound causes as it travels through air and optionally to transform this level on a logarithmic scale (the Decibel scale). This table lists several things to reference. For example the upper end of a normal conversation sits at 0.02Pa or 60Db.

Now if we mean “three times as loud” on the linear pressure scale, that elevates a normal talking voice to the volume of a TV set. Not very impressive. If we mean “three times as loud” on the logarithmic scale, that comes out above the volume of a stun grenade. Very impressive, though probably a bit unbalanced for a cantrip.

Obviously neither of these interpretations is what the spell creator had in mind. But, then what is?

Does a term being normalizable mean the same as the term has a normal form?

From Types and Programming Languages by Pierce

A term $ t$ is in normal form if no evaluation rule applies to it— i.e., if there is no $ t’$ such that $ t -→ t’$ .


A term $ t$ is typable (or well typed) if there is some $ T$ such that $ t : T$ .

In the pure simple typed lambda calculus:

we consider another fundamental theoretical property of the pure simply typed lambda-calculus: the fact that the evaluation of a well- typed program is guaranteed to halt in a finite number of steps—i.e., every well-typed term is normalizable.

Does a term being normalizable mean the same as the term has a normal form?

Here is a term which has no normal form in the untyped lambda calculus:

Recall that a term that cannot take a step under the evaluation relation is called a normal form. Interestingly, some terms cannot be evaluated to a nor- mal form. For example, the divergent combinator

$ $ omega = (λx. x x) (λx. x x);$ $

contains just one redex, and reducing this redex yields exactly omega again! Terms with no normal form are said to diverge.

In the pure simple typed lambda calculus,

  • is $ omega$ typable (i.e. well-typed)?
  • is $ omega$ normalizable?
  • does $ omega$ have a normal form?

Is it normal that our sharepoint on-premises 2013 does not have WSS_Loging database

we have a sharepoint farm 2013 (license type = SharePoint Server with Standard Client Access License) , now we are facing an issue that the “Usage reports” for our sites will always be empty (0 views). so i login to out database server, to check the permission for the “WSS_UsageApplication”.. but i have noted that our database server miss the “WSS_Logging” database, here is our database list:-

enter image description here

so is this normal? and how i can check if this database server actually exists or have been removed? also if this database was removed, then can we still access and use our sites? as we did not face any issues, except for the “Usage Report” been empty…

but when i checked the logging database name inside our CA >> Monitoring >> ” Configure usage and health data collection” >> i found the name as follow “WSS_UsageApplication” and not “WSS_Logging”:- enter image description here

so am i missing anything? as on all the farms i worked on i always find a database named “WSS_Logging”