Do any programming language function calls internally call Operating system APIs?

To list directory content in Python we use os.listdir(), In Java we use Files.list(new File(dirName).toPath()). Like this we use a lot of functions calls, eg: For Network connectivity, Print in screen, Save to files.

In all operating systems do these all language-specific function calls ultimately call OS APIs (In Windows I think it will be Win32 APIs)?

ANything we can do without call OS APIs?

Are there any models of operating systems which don’t require rings of privileges, that are also secure?

I am working on a simple operating system in JavaScript and have noticed that there are two kinds of processes: the “main” process (or “kernel” process), and all the other processes. Basically they are implemented completely differently (which makes sense). But I’m wondering if you could reuse some of the logic and just have it all be one type of process. Do any operating systems do this? If so, what do they do? If not, why not?

Why are more and more websites increasingly operating subscription models?

[No idea if this is the right community so please forgive if not]

More and more I am noticing websites charging for subscription services, whereas years and years ago I suppose when less data was being sent and received [in the days of lower speeds etc.] most websites were free. Youtube is a particular example – now they are offering Youtube Premium whilst introducing inconveniences for free users. Amazon makes less sense to me as surely they profit enough serving as a shopfront, but they have also introduced features such as Amazon Prime.

Apart from the obvious – because who doesn’t want to make a profit – why is this? I would be interested to get some insight from people knowledgeable about this kind of thing as I am only a user and can only guess.

How to run 64bit software on 32bit operating system?

I have a Windows software that only has 64bit version and I want to run it on my linux computer. I know I can use wine on linux but my OS is 32bit and my hardware supports 64bit I know that I can run a 64bit program on a 32bit operating system using a virtual machine but I don’t know how to do it. I hope someone will show me how to do it.

Why to disable McAfee Antivirus before updating Operating System to windows 10? – McAfee Antivirus

The reason why one should disable McAfee before updating operating system to windows 10 is that it might get the software into compatibility issues and can thus corrupt the system functioning and also the antivirus, therefore, it is necessary to get the software disabled while updating the operating system to windows 10. If you still need more help or support then, in that case, connect with the team of trained and certified experts.