The use of “over” in cryptography (as in “a hash over the key”)

This is the ultimate noob question.

When reading discussions of cryptography, I often come across phrases like these:

…calculates a hash over the primary key…

…a key derivation function over a static string…

…an HMAC over the i-th derived key…

Is “over” in these examples just a hip way to say “of”?

More concretely, is there a real technical difference between the sentences above and their counterparts below?

…calculates a hash of the primary key…

…a key derivation function of a static string…

…an HMAC of the i-th derived key…

what are the advantages of using intimidation over persuasion

there are some pretty obvious downsides to intimidation the primary one is if it fails you may end up with a bunch of city guards on your tail. What about the advantages because from what I in my limited knowledge understand is that intimidation is just a weaker persuasion. Odds are I’m very wrong about that which is why I asked. Let’s go purely by RAW and RAI for consistencies sake.

I accept sponsored Posts form my Facebook Group with over 30k members for $50

I have a Facebook group with more than 35k active and engaged members from all over the world. I use it to promote entertainment and products (beauty, fashion, accessories and more). This group offers me the possibility to get extra income and I sold myself products through the members. Me and my admins we keep it updated and active daily, so our members are involved.

by: dianaiuliana
Created: —
Category: Social Networks
Viewed: 149


How much control do you have over a charmed creature from the Great Old One warlock’s Create Thrall feature?

In the Great Old One branch of Warlock, there is a Create Thrall effect, which states that if I touch an incapacitated creature it becomes charmed toward me – but it describes nothing else about the charming.

How much control do you have over the charmed person?

Most charming spells describe your limits on what you can do, such as that you can order them around but you can’t order them to do something against their nature. So are there any rules that cover charming in general?

I know the basic stuff listed in the Player’s Handbook, such as that charmed creatures cannot attack allies of the charmer – but does charming give any control over the charmed person?

Possible to find average CPU usage over time in top?

Is it possible to use top to get the CPU usage of the process over time?

Running top with the d command allows me to change the delay, but does this change the rate at which it just refreshes (taking the CPU at the time) or does it provide an average since the last refresh?

In webmin i’ll see the CPU usage bounce between 50%-20%, very odd, when i run top i’m seeing closer to 20 on every reading. If i change the delay is it possible its sampling when it dips to 20%, or does the delay average usage since last sample?

Implementing DNS over TLS on 18.04

I am not very familiar with Linux, as I have predominantly been involved with everything Microsoft for the majority of my IT life, but I am just looking at the possibility of implementing a pair of Ubuntu DNS Servers that will perform external lookups using Cloudflare’s DNS over TLS.

I have read some articles saying that you can use:

  • Stubby
  • Bind9 with stunnel
  • nginx as a TLS proxy

However, I am not sure of the best and easiest method and just wondered if anyone had an opinion on what I should be using and if there is any documentation on how to setup and configure.