How to perform matrix multiplication in Mixing Columns step of AES?

I am studying AES and trying to implement it. But I am having difficulty understanding the Mixing Column step. In that step we have to perform matrix multiplication between the state matrix and another fixed matrix. Here is the example given in the material I am studying from: enter image description here

I am not getting the 03*2F part. How did it turn into (02*2F)xor2F? Is the material correct or does it have some mistake?

Connection Information To perform the requested action – Is there an easy way to fix this?

It’s been about one year since I created my last WordPress website. I’m using GVO as my host and was able to install WordPress without any problems but when I try to change themes or add plugins I get this message.

Connection Information To perform the requested action, WordPress needs to access your web server. Please enter your FTP credentials to proceed. If you do not remember your credentials, you should contact your web host.

When I enter my ftp information, wordpress says that I have the wrong username/pw or it says that the folder wp-content doesn’t exist.

Is there an easy way to fix this problem in 2020 that doesn’t require having to go into the websites code?

I’ve noticed the same messages with my other GVO websites so I’m also wondering if it’s an issue with their server?

Thank you,


How to help new-ish players perform less linearly in encounters?

Quick encounter reference guide has so many possible options for players to take. Even then, the option for diplomacy, roleplaying, and imagination are endless in dnd.

With that said, the last couple homebrew fights have the players attacking first, asking questions later, and just running into the enemies without much thought, rolling off attacks, and using their combat spells in the exact same order each time like a recipe. They don’t even move much in the fight as positioning isn’t a concern for them. Barely surviving but them feeling like “well the fight we either roll well, or die if we roll poorly.” Rather than thinking and trying out other possibilities, utility spells, positioning, imaginative problem solving.

I’ve considered adding environmental obstacles, traps, more dialogue-related enemies, and problems to solve. Maybe them failing, and learning from mistakes is one way to help them learn.

It’s also not just about throwing a bunch of text of them to read, telling them to watch a dnd podcast to get ideas, or adding “new” things, as it is about themselves realising themselves new methods to approach encounters, and trying out new things.

What are some good strategies to help foster this imagination in an organic way that doesn’t involve me telling them to do mandatory homework?

How to perform Partition by in SQLAlchemy

I am trying to use SQL alchemy & wanted to see how to create the partition by on a column, but i couldn’t find anything for sqlalchemy in respect a declarative extention. For example, if I have the following SQL syntex

CREATE TABLE employees (     id INT NOT NULL,     fname VARCHAR(30),     lname VARCHAR(30)     job_code INT NOT NULL,     store_id INT NOT NULL ) PARTITION BY RANGE (store_id) (     PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (6),     PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (11),     PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (16),     PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE ); 

And I created a table via sqlalchemy as follows:

class Employee(Base):       __tablename__ = "employee"       __table_args__ = {'mysql_engine': 'InnoDB'}        emp_id = Column(Integer, nullable=False)       fname = Column(String,  nullable=False)       lname = Column(String,  nullable=False)       job_code = Column(Integer, nullable=False)       store_id = Column(Integer, nullable=False) 

How can i implement Partition in the above sqlalchemy code?

How can I use ThreadingLayer to perform operations with layers of different dimmensions?

Is there a way that I can achieve subtraction between a scalar and a vector within NetGraph[], similar to what happens when I perform {1, 2, 3}-1 to get {0,1,2}? For my purposes, this needs to be done within NetGraph[] for timing and functional reasons. Part of the trouble is that the vector also will be changing in size. Is there already a NetGraph[] layer that has these functionalities?

For those who want a little more background, I am trying to create a filter within my network as part of the loss function, where the data being fed into the network spans over just two days and each day (of the week) is represented as a value between 0 and 1. So Monday is represented as 0.0 and Tuesday as 0.2 and so forth.

I am using SequenceLastLayer[] to get the time of the last bar of data, and am attempting to use this in conjunction with a slightly modified Tanh[] function within ThreadingLayer[], as well as the bars with the other time values whose form will be similar to {.0,.0,.0,...,.2,.2,.2,}. So the one scalar, in this example, would be 0.2 and the vector would be {.0,.0,.0,...,.2,.2,.2,}, and the operation would be:

`{.0,.0,.0,...,.2,.2,.2,} - 0.2` 

This seems like it should be relatively simple, but I have not yet been able to figure it out. Does anyone know what I can do differently?

Here is the code so far:

net = NetGraph[<|"thread" -> ThreadingLayer[#1*#2 &],     "getLastLayer" ->      SequenceLastLayer[]|>, {NetPort["timeInput"] -> {"getLastLayer",       "thread"}, "getLastLayer" -> "thread"}] 

enter image description here

And the code to run it would be similar to:

net[<|"timeInput" -> {0.0,0.0,0.0,...,0.2,0.2,0.2,}|>] 

Is there a data structure that can perform range modulo additions and range minimum queries?

It is well-known that the Segment Tree performs range additions and range minimum queries in O(logN) each.

Let each element in the array have value V[i], M[i]. We define a “range modulo add” as the following: add +X to V[i] for each element in the range L<=i<=R and then calculate modulo M[i] for each element L<=i<=R. Can both this operation and range minimum queries be run in (worst-case or average-case) o(N)? If not on ranges [L,R], is it possible to handle range minimum queries and range modulo adds on the entire array quickly?

Can you perform somatic components with War Caster when wielding a single weapon or shield?

Reading the War Caster feat again, I’m having a doubt about the following sentence:

You can perform the somatic components of spells even when you have weapons or a shield in one or both hands.

I’m trying to figure out the implications of this feat when using a hand to grapple an opponent. It looks like wielding a shield would be enough to perform somatic components, but wielding a single weapon would not – the plural suggesting you must hold 2 weapons (potentially, in one hand…) to do so.

Am I reading this correctly, or am I paying my lack of involvement during english lessons ?

More context: I’m considering spells such as Primal Savagery, Shocking Grasp, Inflict Wounds, Vampiric Touch to deal reasonable damage to a grappled, prone opponent, while wearing a shield. Double-checking RAW here, and adding the “weapons” issue for the sake of completeness.

Microservice security: How to perform authorization + services also need auth checks individually?

I have the following architecture for accessing a REST service that requires authentication:

enter image description here

  • Oidc token flow managed at the client
  • Access token verified at the server in the auth service (proxied by the api gateway), exchanged for a jwt that contains authorisation information about the user.
  • The resource is accessed

In the current model, every request needs to verify the access token (which is normal), but also needs to retrieve the authorization information on every request, which I don’t feel is ok.
The jwt used in this model is only for internal use at the server cluster, as there really is no need to send it back tot the client. Also generating a jwt on every request doesn’t feel quite right.

Storing the jwt in a server store (cache / database) is something I don’t feel is right with this model, because this makes the system stateful again (in case of multiple api gateways, there is need again for sticky sessions, synchronisation etc). Hence this doesn’t offer a solution.

One possible solution would be that authorization is not checked upfront along with the authentication (i.e. verification) process, but only depending on the requested route / action. I don’t particularly like this, as this requires back and forth messaging when a protected resource is accessed. It doesn’t smell like clean architecture.

What is the advised way to go about this?
Related, I wondered if it is enough to perform authentication in the api gateway. These microservices work independently, and I feel a bit uncomfortable that the api gateway grants all access while keeping the underlying services ‘dumb’. Is this a misplaced sense of paranoia?