Why You Need to Swap Out Your Galvanized Pipes

What are galvanized pipes?

Galvanized pipes are steel pipes that have been dipped in a protective zinc coating to prevent corrosion and rust. Galvanized steel pipe was commonly installed in homes built before 1960. When it was invented, galvanized pipe was an alternative to lead pipe for water supply lines. Today, however, we have learned that decades of exposure to water will cause galvanized pipes to corrode and rust on the inside.

What do galvanized pipes look like?

When first installed, galvanized pipes looks similar to a nickel in color. But as it ages, galvanized pipe may appear much duller, lighter, or darker, depending on its environment. We’ve also seen homes where the water pipes have been painted, so it can be difficult to tell at first glance.

How can I tell if I have galvanized pipes?

If you can’t tell by looking at your pipes, there is a quick test to tell if they are galvanized. Simply grab a flat head screwdriver and a strong magnet. Start by finding your water line and scratch the outside of the welded steel pipe with the screwdriver. Compare your results:

Copper

The scratched area will look like a copper penny.
A magnet will NOT stick to it.

Plastic
The scratched area will appear ivory or white in color.
A magnet will NOT stick to it

Galvanized steel
The scratched area will have a silver-gray color.
A strong magnet will stick to it.

Lead
The scratched area will have a dull silver-gray color, and the metal will usually be soft and easy to scratch. A magnet will NOT stick to it. Lead LSAW welded pipes are easy to bend and may be misshapen. If you have lead pipes, we recommend replacement if at all possible.

Be sure to scratch test your pipes in multiple areas. It is not uncommon to have more than one type of piping on your water line.

Do galvanized pipes contain lead?

The galvanized pipes installed on water lines between 1880 and 1960 were dipped in molten, naturally occurring zinc. Naturally occurring zinc is impure, so these pipes, such as boiler pipe, fluid pipe, coating steel pipe, were bathed in zinc that also contained lead and other impurities. The zinc coating elongated the life of the steel pipes, but added small amount of lead and other substances that could potentially harm inhabitants.

Additionally, if your galvanized pipes were ever connected to lead plumbing (including service lines) there is more cause for concern. The corrosion inside galvanized steel pipes could have trapped small pieces of the lead. Even if the lead piping was removed years ago, the galvanized steel pipes could still periodically release the trapped lead into the water flow. Chicago didn’t stop using lead pipes for service lines until 1986, and an estimated 400,000 lead service lines are still in use in Chicago alone.

The only way to ensure that lead is not mobilized from plumbing to tap in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing and any lead service lines.

What other problems can galvanized pipes cause?

Low Water Pressure
Due to the restriction of the line, corrosion in galvanized pipes can cause lower water pressure throughout your home.

Uneven Distribution of Water
If some of your taps have low water pressure, but others don’t, this could be a symptom of galvanized pipes. Corrosion can build up unevenly. Also, part of the galvanized steel piling pipe line could have been replaced in your home, but not everywhere.

Discoloration of Water
Galvanized SSAW welded pipes can release iron and cause discoloration. A clear indicator of this is a brown stain on a porcelain sink.

Leaks
Given enough time, galvanized pipes will rust through and cause more damage to your home.

A review on the durability of PVC sewer pipes

A review on the durability of PVC sewer pipes
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become one of the dominant construction materials for sewer systems over the past decades, as a result of its reputed merits. However, since PVC sewer pipes have operated for decades in a hostile environment, concern over their longevity has been lately raised by sewer managers in the Netherlands. Towards that direction, the main factors and mechanisms that affect a PVC pipe’s lifetime are discussed in this article, along with the current lifetime prediction methods and their limitations. The review of relevant case studies indicates that material degradation, if any, occurs slowly. However, inspection (CCTV) data of three Dutch municipalities reveals that severe defects have already surfaced and degradation evolves at an unexpected fast rate. A main reason of this gap between literature and practice is the fact that comprehensive material testing of PVC sewer pipes is rarely found in the literature although it proves to be essential in order to trustfully assess the level of degradation and its origins.
Plastics are used for a wide range of commercial and industrial piping applications. The most known are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS), polybutylene (PB) and glass–fibre-reinforced polyester (GRP or FRP). Concerning piping systems for drinking water supply, gas distribution and sewage disposal, PVC, PE and PP are the most popular polymer materials (PlasticsEurope, 2017). Especially for gravity sewer pipes, PVC has been extensively used over the past decades and has become the dominant construction material. Cost efficiency, ease of installation, range of available diameters (40–630 mm) and its reputed chemical resistance favour its wide acceptance by decision makers in urban drainage (Davidovski, 2016).

Since there are PVC sewer pipes in operation for at least four decades, concern over their longevity has been lately raised in the Netherlands. It is still unknown whether the expectations of long-lasting PVC pipes (Folkman, 2014) will prove realistic or new asset management strategies should be established in the near future. Knowledge of the current structural integrity of sewer systems is a key issue for establishing successful asset management strategies, leading to better decision making and more affordable investments. In practice, sewer managers currently base their strategies mainly on visual (CCTV) inspections (Van Riel, Langeveld, Herder, & Clemens, 2014). Subsequently, decisions are taken whether replacement, rehabilitation or a near future inspection should take place. However, linking the observed defects in CCTV to the actual physical state of a pipe is challenging (Van Riel, 2017). A necessary condition for achieving this is comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that affect a PVC pipe’s lifetime, their combined effects and eventually their results, which are the defects found in practice. An overview of these mechanisms and their origins is included in this article. Lifetime prediction methods for UPVC pipes are also utilised to describe specific types of failure, while their ability to provide trustful lifetime prediction is discussed.
The main aim of this article is to present case studies of PVC sewer pipes found in the literature and to compare the derived conclusions on PVC durability with findings in inspection (CCTV) data. Emphasis is given on the studies that investigate the properties that define the structural integrity and overall performance of a sewer system. The inspection data concerns three different municipalities in The Netherlands: Almere, Amstelveen and Breda. The main discrepancies between literature and inspection data are discussed, as a step towards bridging results from scientific research and observations from practice.
Suspension polymerisation is the most applied process for PVC particles production (80%), whereas emulsion and mass polymerisation provide 12 and 8% of the world production, respectively (Fischer, Schmitt, Porth, Allsopp, & Vianello, 2014). Although the specific details of the PVC particles size slightly differ in the literature (Benjamin, 1980; Butters, 1982; Faulkner, 1975), the microstructure follows the same pattern. This can be described in three stages (Butters, 1982): the stage III-PVC particle (∼100–150 μm), the stage II-primary particle (∼0.1–2 μm) and the stage I particle (∼10 nm). The conversion of the material to a homogeneous product requires that the boundaries of the primary particles disappear and a new continuous entanglement network is developed (Visser, 2009). This procedure is known as the gelation process and its quality is expressed by the gelation level. There are several methods to obtain information about the gelation level (Castillo, 2016; Choi, Lynch, Rudin, Teh, & Batiste, 1992; Fillot, Hajji, Gauthier, & Masenelli-Varlot, 2006; Gilbert & Vyvoda, 1981; Gramann, Cruz, & Ralston, 2010; Johansson & Törnell, 1986; Kim, Cotterell, & Mai, 1987; Marshall & Birch, 1982; Real, João, Pimenta, & Diogo, 2018; Terselius, Jansson, & Bystedt, 1981; Van der Heuvel, 1982).

A general accepted opinion suggests optimum gelation levels of 60–85% (Benjamin, 1980; Breen, 2006). A temperature of >250 °C is needed for this purpose (Guerrero & Keller, 1981), much higher than the degradation temperature of PVC which is ∼205 °C (Wypych, 2015). Due to this fact, thermal energy is complemented with mechanical energy (high shear stresses) by the use of twin rotating screws, so as to accelerate this process without extensive exposure of the material to high temperatures (Visser, 2009). Subsequently, the molten material is introduced in a die so that the final pipe is shaped and cooled. This manufacturing technique is called extrusion and is extensively used to form pipes. Fittings, such as joints, are formed by the injection moulding technique. In the injection moulding process, the melted plastic is injected in a mould, which gives the desired form to the PVC fitting, and after cooling the product is ejected.

During the production process, several additives and fillers may be incorporated in the polymers structure in order to enhance its chemical and physical properties, respectively. Plasticisers and stabilisers are the main additives as they affect the behaviour and degradation rate of the material through its lifecycle. Plasticisers are utilised in order to replace some monomers of the polymer chain, offering a higher degree of mobility and, hence, more flexibility. For sewer applications unplasticised rigid PVC pipes are used. Stabilisers are added for increased resistance to e.g.: UV rays, chemical attack and other relevant external factors (Cardarelli, 2008). For pvc pipework in Europe, lead has been used until the early 2000s, when it was replaced by calcium-based stabilisers in most countries (Anders, 2014).

Every step within the production of PVC pipes and furniture PVC fittings can have an effect on the long-term performance of the final product. The levels of water and oxygen during polymerisation could influence the formation and quality of the produced PVC particles (Butters, 1982). Subsequently, the gelation process, already affected by the degree of polymerisation (Fujiyama & Kondou, 2004), plays a major role in the mechanical properties (Mandell, Darwish, & McGarry, 1982; Moghri, Garmabi, & Akbarian, 2003; Truss, 1985; Van der Heuvel, 1982). These properties are determined by the morphology of the material (Benjamin, 1980; Kuriyama, Narisawa, Shina, & Kotaki, 1998) and by the polymer’s orientation and molecular mobility (Fillot, Hajji, Gauthier, & Masenelli-Varlot, 2007). Additionally, impurities and voids in the polymer structure, frequently referred to as inherent defects, are introduced during production, resulting in crack initiators, and their presence seems to be inevitable (Johansson & Törnell, 1987). The wear observed at the polymer pipes extruders (Gladchenko, Shevelya, Kiyanitsa, & Derkach, 1997) might also contribute to the occurrence of inherent defects.

Residual stresses are also introduced during production, as a result of different cooling rates between the inner and the outer pipe surface (Siegmann, Buchman, & Kenig, 1981), and constitute another parameter that affects the mechanical properties of the produced pipe (Siegmann, Buchman, & Kenig, 1982). Relevant research on residual stresses in PVC pipes (Breen, 2006; Meerman, 2008; Scholten, van der Stok, Gerets, Wenzel, & Boege, 2016) has revealed that their magnitude is in a range of 0.9–4.8 MPa for tensile and 3.9–9.4 for compressive stresses (Table 1). In principle, a faster cooling rate or a thicker pipe wall thickness will lead to higher levels of residual stresses (Janson, 2003; Scholten et al., 2016). However, irrespective of their magnitude, residual stresses affect the crack propagation as they change the stress profile through the pipe (Burn, 1992; Chaoui, Chudnovsky, & Moet, 1987), increase the brittle–ductile temperature (Scholten et al., 2016), and, consequently, they seem to have a tremendous effect on the lifetime of pressurised plastic pipes (Hutař et al., 2013; Poduška et al., 2016).

A nasty pandemic problem: More flushed wipes are clogging pipes, sending sewage into

Some wastewater utilities say they are facing a nasty pandemic problem: More disposable wipes being flushed down toilets are clogging pipes, jamming pumps and sending raw sewage into homes and waterways.
Utilities have urged customers for years to ignore “flushable” labels on increasingly popular, premoistened wipes used by nursing home staffs, potty-training toddlers and people who shun toilet paper. But some utilities say their wipe woes significantly worsened a year ago during a pandemic-induced toilet paper shortage, and have yet to let up.

They say some customers who resorted to baby wipes and “personal hygiene” wipes appear to have stuck with them long after toilet paper returned to store shelves. Another theory: People who wouldn’t take wipes to the office are using more while working from home.

More disinfectant wipes also are getting improperly flushed, utilities say, as people sanitize counters and doorknobs. Paper masks and latex gloves tossed into toilets and washed into storm drains also are jamming sewer equipment and littering rivers.
At WSSC Water, which serves 1.8 million residents in the Maryland suburbs, workers at its largest wastewater pumping station removed about 700 tons of wipes last year — a 100-ton jump over 2019.
“It started last March and really hasn’t eased up since,” said WSSC Water spokeswoman Lyn Riggins.
Utilities say the wipes twist into ropy wads, either in a home’s sewer pipe or miles down the line. They then congeal with grease and other cooking fats improperly sent down drains to form sometimes massive “fatbergs” that block pumps and pipes, sending sewage backing up into basements and overflowing into streams. On Wednesday, WSSC Water said 10,200 gallons of untreated sewage reached a creek in Silver Spring after an estimated 160 pounds of wipes plugged a pipe.
You’ve seen the gross sewer-blocking fatberg pics? Here’s how government, industry and shoppers can all help stop wet wipes clogging our drains and oceans.

Fatbergs – those revolting sewer mountains made of wet wipes, grease and other gunk – have been cropping up all over the place in the past year or so, from London and Cardiff to Staffordshire and Devon.
As well as causing trouble in wastewater systems, wipes can find their way into oceans. Along with other types of plastic pollution, they can cause long-term problems for sea creatures and the marine environment.
Wet wipes made up more than 90% of the material causing sewer blockages that Water UK investigated in 2017
Friends of the Earth commissioned a report from research group Eunomia, Reducing Household Contributions to Marine Plastic Pollution [PDF]. This reveals our everyday habits that result in all sorts of plastics getting into our seas. Sometimes from seemingly unlikely sources, such as medical wet wipes.

Used to be that only babies’ behinds were cleaned up with wet wipes. But in recent years, the popularity of similar products for adults has surged—they’re part of the $1.4 billion and growing “personal wipes” category of hygiene products, according to a market research report. You’ve seen them on drugstore shelves, and maybe you even use them. But while adult wipes are clearly good for business, we were curious: Are their any health benefits to using them instead of toilet paper?
Basically, no. “There is no medical advantage to cleaning up with baby wipes for adults as opposed to toilet paper,” says Holly Phillips, M.D., a women’s health specialist in New York City and a medical contributor to CBS News.  “It comes down to what makes you feel clean and fresh.” Still, keep in mind that some wipes might be pre-moistened with aloe, vitamin E, alcohol, and other gentle- or harmless-sounding additives that might actually irritate sensitive skin and leave your bum stinging and inflamed. “Play it safe by going for an unscented, unmedicated, chemical-free brand of wipe,” says Phillips.
More important than what you wipe with (remember, until toilet paper was invented in the 19th century, people used newspaper, clay, leaves, and even corncobs, which couldn’t have felt good) is how you wipe. You’ve heard a million times to do it from front to back to prevent the germs present in feces from getting near your urethra and causing a urinary tract infection—but it’s still smart advice, says Phillips. You also want to wipe firmly but not press or rub hard, which can lead to small abrasions in your anal area. And don’t leave the bathroom until you’re all cleaned off if you can help it. Leaving a little poop behind can lead to itching and irritation—not to mention a surprise on your thong.
Finally, even though adult wipes are supposed to be flushable, sewer and waste officials can tell you that it isn’t true, and wipes are clogging up pipes and sewers, causing major damage. “Just toss them in the trash or diaper disposal,” says Phillips.
Household wipes are hard to come by these days. As the number of cases of the novel coronavirus began to climb quickly in the U.S. in March, worried consumers began pantry-loading supplies like household cleaners and disinfectants, including wipes. For months, shelves have been emptied of these products, and when they are restocked, they’re gone within the hour. 
WASHINGTON — The coronavirus pandemic has led many people to buy whatever they can to protect themselves, such as, disinfectant dry wipes, masks and gloves.
However, the methods some people are using to get rid of the protective and cleaning tools are becoming a problem.
“Messy, gross,” is how Lyn Riggins, who is the spokesperson for WSSC Water, described what workers are pulling out of pumps at water treatment facilities.

[ Maintenance & Repairs ] Open Question : Condensating Pipes Inside Wall?

Purchased home and discovered one section of pipes which have been condensating for who knows how long, causing issues with the sheetrock. These pipes feed water to the washer/dryer. Plumber confirmed no leak, just condensation. Would we have to remove entire sections of wall just to add insulation to the entire length of the pipe? Not sure how long pipe goes on for. Any suggestions or advice? Thanks! Thanks for the advice; I’ll be contacting home warranty to get another plumber to rule out any underlying issues. 

Consumer-Producer problem / Pipes and Filters

In computer science, in operating systems, respectively their design and internals, there are: Producer-Consumer problem Readers-Writers Bounded Buffer

Software architecture in turn teaches the concept of Pipes and Filters.

Indication: You have a God class with 100+ functions. Each is called with one argument input (i.e. Message) and returns an output (i.e. transformed Message).

Process: You chop it up into 100 classes. Each is an independent Producer or Consumer, or both Producer-Consumer at the same time. Communication between them is via a Queue (publish subscribe).

How do you solve the remaining challenge, the challenge of load balancing? The Producer generates 100 msg/s and the Consumer accepts 50msg/s (assume compute bound, not I/O bound. More threads would compute more).

A slow consumer is detected by its queue growing, meaning it has messages piling up. You have a multi-core CPU, and for starters the consumer is a single thread.

Comment or answer how you would achieve an auto scale out of a slow consumer from one thread (compute bound) to multiple threads (or also scale down from multiple threads of the same consumer to one thread when the queue is not full enough to employ all consumer threads).

Como listar os named pipes no debian

Aí galera,

Eu preciso de saber o número de named pipes que existem em um sistema Debian. Nas pesquisas que fiz encontrei o comando lsof |grep FIFO que alegadamente nos dá op pipes. Alguém me consegue confirmar? No meu caso a execução do comando lsof resultou no seguinte:

dbus-laun  3039             user    8r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5920 pipe xfconfd    3061             user    4r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5957 pipe xfconfd    3061             user    5w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5957 pipe xscreensa  3082             user    1w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe xscreensa  3082             user    2w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe xscreensa  3082             user    4r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe xscreensa  3082             user    5w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe gvfsd      3120             user    5r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       6295 pipe gvfsd      3120             user    7w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       6295 pipe xfdesktop  3132             user   14r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       6946 pipe xfdesktop  3132             user   15w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       6946 pipe xfce4-set  3155             user    7r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       6481 pipe xfce4-set  3155             user    8w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       6481 pipe ripples   20156             user    1w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe ripples   20156             user    2w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe ripples   20156             user    4r     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe ripples   20156             user    5w     FIFO        0,8      0t0       5992 pipe sftp-serv 21573             user    0r     FIFO        0,8      0t0      65082 pipe sftp-serv 21573             user    1w     FIFO        0,8      0t0      65083 pipe sftp-serv 21573             user    2w     FIFO        0,8      0t0      65084 pipe lsof      24710             user    1w     FIFO        0,8      0t0     261531 pipe lsof      24710             user    5w     FIFO        0,8      0t0     261539 pipe lsof      24710             user    6r     FIFO        0,8      0t0     261540 pipe grep      24711             user    0r     FIFO        0,8      0t0     261531 pipe lsof      24712             user    4r     FIFO        0,8      0t0     261539 pipe lsof      24712             user    7w     FIFO        0,8      0t0     261540 pipe 

Os named pipes são os que estão na primeira coluna? Visto que existem vários com o mesmo nome devo contabilizar todos ou apenas 1 de cada?

Where should I put my named pipes on RHEL7?

I done some quicky web searches to find out how to make a named pipe. It looks very straight forward I just need to execute as root: mkfifo filename, but what the best practice on where on the filesystem to put named pipes? Should they go into /tmp, /var/tmp, /var/lib or somewhere else? Also should I follow any naming convention or is there names I should avoid?

Thanks!