Must a Wizard prepare a spell to cast it as a ritual?

Ritual casting does not expend a spell slot, I know that. However, the Wizard class feature does not say anything about whether you must prepare the subject spell to cast it as a ritual. On one side, it is anyway “casting” a spell, so you can say “yes, you must prepare.” On the other hand, (although it is just about how wizards cast rituals,) your ritual involves your spellbook, so you can see the ritual ceremony “from the spellbook”, which removes the need to prepare the spell.

My question is: Must I prepare the subject spell in advance to perform it?

This is only about Wizards. Clerics, Druids, Bards have these problems nailed down explicitly. Clerics’ and Druids’ ritual casting requires you to prepare the spell in advance, and Bards’ rituals can only be drawn from what they know.

How to prepare my party to reasonable be able to bring down a prismatic wall?


In my campaign I have a villain who uses misdirection and avoidance as their main combat methods. As last resort when the party confronts them in their lair it would be appropriate for them to use Prismatic Wall to prevent the party from killing or capturing them.

Prismatic Wall requires 7 different, very specific, spells in a specific order to remove. Namely; Cone of Cold, Gust of Wind, Disintegrate, Passwall, Magic Missile, Daylight, and Dispel Magic.

This enemy is clever but arrogant, they will likely cast this spell toward the end of a drawn out battle meaning the party may already be down on resources. Without warning they might need to defeat a Prismatic Wall the party may expend the required resources before it appears.

Party Details

In my party I have:

  • A Half-Elf Wizard
  • A Human Druid
  • A Gnome Oracle
  • A Halfling Bard
  • A Half-Orc Paladin.

The party is currently 9th level and they will likely confront this enemy some time between 12th and 14th level depending on how direct their approach is.

The party is equipped slightly below normal for their level due to some decisions made to this point in the campaign. None of their current items will be a particular benefit in this task.

The Problem

I would like my party to have a reasonable chance of actually being able to bring down this wall. If I just throw it at them the chance of this is basically 0. This is the first campaign for all of my players and they have never encounter anything like this before.

Between the various spellcasters in the party they already have access to 5 out of the 7 required spells. Disintegrate and Passwall being the exceptions. I can easily provide them access to the others between now and the confrontation. However, the party does not always prepare these specific spells and may not have them available when required.

How can I, as DM, prepare my players to defeat a Prismatic Wall spell, without explicitly telling them it is coming?

I will likely need to provide them both with information on how to defeat it and provide some resources to help them do so. I am willing to provide help in the form of items, lore dumps from NPCs and potentially NPC allies, though I prefer not to have NPC perform critical actions in place of the players.

Are there any specific rules about how to prepare spells?

[This question is related to my Dwarven Cleric character.]

In the Player’s Handbook, it says that all spells need to be prepared in advance before they can be used. I get that this is done while resting but does it matter how long the rest is (i.e. long or short) as it doesn’t seem to say how long each spell takes to prepare.

Also, are there any specific mechanisms for preparing spells, other than telling my DM "In this rest I will prepare X spells"?

Amount of spells wizard can prepare

Looking at the Dungeon Worlds’s Wizard playbook Prepare Spells move, it seems quite clear how it works at the first reading:

When you spend uninterrupted time (an hour or so) in quiet contemplation of your spellbook, you:

  • Lose any spells you already prepared
  • Prepare new spells chosen from your spellbook whose total levels don’t exceed your own level +1
  • Prepare your cantrips which never count against your limit

So, assuming that wizard reaches 9th level (not very realistic in DW, but just for sake of argument), and decides to take one of the 9th lvl spells, he will have two spells prepared – his 9th level and some other 1st level. If he had chosen proper moves while advancing, he could possibly prepare 9th level and 3 1st level spells, but that’s it.

Do I understand it correctly, that regarding spells, wizard is a one-trick pony, unless he reaches high level and decides to stick with only with low-level spells?

Can alchemists prepare alchemical items without reading their formula book?

The Pathfinder 2 alchemist class can prepare alchemical items if they have the item’s formula in their formula book. However, the class features never explicitly say that the alchemist needs to read the formula book, or have the formula book nearby, when crafting these items during their daily preparations.

You can use this feat to create alchemical items as long as you have the items’ formulas in your formula book.

… choose an alchemical item of your advanced alchemy level or lower that’s in your formula book …

You create a single alchemical item of your advanced alchemy level or lower that’s in your formula book…

The items you can select depend on your research field and must be in your formula book.

As a point of comparison, the wizard class explicitly requires that wizards must study their spellbook daily in order to prepare spells. So a wizard can’t feasibly go adventuring without it.

At 1st level, you can prepare up to two 1st-level spells and five cantrips each morning from the spells in your spellbook…

You start with a spellbook worth 10 sp or less, which you receive for free and must study to prepare your spells each day.

But the alchemist class has no such wording. Taken literally, this would mean that the alchemist can prepare items as long as (1) their formula book exists somewhere and (2) the item’s formula is written in the formula book. They could leave their 1-bulk formula book in a safe location and go adventuring without penalty.

In terms of rules-as-written, is this interpretation correct? Or do they need their formula book on hand during their daily preparations?

Multiclass Paladin + Primary Spellcaster = What paladin spells can I prepare and cast?

I’m sure this has been asked somewhere already, but I couldn’t find it.

Let’s say I’m Paladin 5 / Warlock 7.

When I choose what Paladin spells I know, I consider myself as a single-classed Paladin 5, which would have 2nd level spell slots, so I can know 2nd level Paladin spells.

Spells Known and Prepared. You determine what spells you know and can prepare for each class individually, as if you were a single-classed member of that class.

When I consider what spell slots I actually have, I look on the multiclass spellcaster table, and see that I only have 1st level Paladin spell slots.

Spell Slots. You determine your available spell slots by adding together all your levels in the bard, cleric, druid, sorcerer, and wizard classes, and half your levels (rounded down) in the paladin and ranger classes. Use this total to determine your spell slots by consulting the Multiclass Spellcaster table.

So, if I want to cast one of those 2nd level Paladin spells, I’ll need to use one of my 4th level spell slots from Warlock.

Is all of that correct?

What is this “prepare” variable used for in this SEH based buffer overflow payload?

I am trying to understand how a SEH based buffer overflow is working and I have to write a paper about how an exploit works. I took this PoC for my paper.

junk = "\x41" * 4091  nseh = "\x61\x62" seh  = "\x57\x42"           # Overwrite Seh # 0x00420057 : {pivot 8}  prepare =  "\x44\x6e\x53\x6e\x58\x6e\x05" prepare += "\x14\x11\x6e\x2d\x13\x11\x6e\x50\x6d\xc3" prepare += "\x41" * 107; ... 

I don’t really understand how it’s jumping over the next SEH.

  • What is \x61\x62 used for in the nseh variable?
  • What is the prepare variable used for?
  • How is it jumping to the shellcode?

I already understand that the \x57\x42 is used as a pointer to target a pop pop ret to trigger a second error but I am stuck after that…

When can you prepare a recently casted spell?

The Pathfinder rules for divine spellcasting state that:

at the time of preparation any spells cast within the previous 8 hours count against the number of spells that can be prepared.

But does that mean that you lose a spell slot for that day, or can you use an extra session of preparation to prepare a spell in that slot, once enough time has passed?

For example, my cleric got ambushed midnight and burned the 3rd-level domain slot. He can’t prepare another 3-level domain spell on his preparation session on the morning, 4h after casting the spell.
But can he prepare a spell un that slot with an extra session once the full 8h have elapsed, or must he wait until the next morning and preparation session?

Can a Bard use Glyph of Warding even though they do not “prepare” spells? [duplicate]

Can a Bard use Glyph of Warding even though they do not “prepare” spells?

In looking at the reasonable boundaries of using Glyph of Warding in the game, I came across a dilemma in the wording of the spell when it comes to classes that do not have “prepared spells”, but have “known spells instead.

Glyph of Warding says that “you can store a prepared spell”, however this wording becomes an issue when interpreting whether a Bard can or cannot use this spell.

A bard does not per se “prepare” their spells. Yet, the spell is listed in the Bard Spells section in the Player’s Handbook (p.207). Hrumpf! It is listed as a Bard spell which normally suggest that it is intended to be used by a Bard as part of their magical repertoire, but the wording needs clarification.

So, for the purposes of interpreting the wording in Glyph of Warding, can we equate “prepared spell” with “known spell”, which would mean the Bard can actually use this spell?

Spell Glyph. You can store a prepared spell of 3rd level or lower in the glyph by casting it as part of creating the glyph. The spell must target a single creature or an area. The spell being stored has no immediate effect when cast in this way. When the glyph is triggered, the stored spell is cast. If the spell has a target, it targets the creature that triggered the glyph. If the spell affects an area, the area is centered on that creature. If the spell summons hostile creatures or creates harmful objects or traps, they appear as close as possible to the intruder and attack it. If the spell requires concentration, it lasts until the end of its full duration. (PHB p.245)

Special thanks to BBeast for kindly mentioning this issue in his answer to: Can you store Hex in a Glyph of Warding?