What is the comparative value of armor proficiencies?

The intent is that I want to playtest some racial features in a restricted setup, before using them in more complicated homebrew endeavors. Applying medium or heavy armor proficiency to this race seems like the easiest way to playtest medium / heavy armor proficiency as racial feature.

The way I see it, it seems that light and heavy armor have other restrictions than proficiencies, such as the reliance on Strength or Dexterity and, in the case of heavy armor, stealth disadvantage. On the other hand, there are no races that grant heavy armor proficiency and there are quite some (sub)classes that grant access to light and / or medium but not heavy armor.

Is medium or heavy armor proficiency as racial feature more powerful (in general) than light armor, or is it just favoring different kinds of builds?

I will use armor proficiencies on homebrew races in the future but first playtest it on the hobgoblin. I would therefore prefer a more general analysis, but considering the specific example (see below) would of course be appreciated.

Given the hobgoblin race with the following feature:

Martial Training. You are proficient with two martial weapons of your choice and with light armor.

would the race become more or less powerful when granting medium or heavy armor instead of light, or would it just lend itself to different builds?

I intend to use the change with the optional rules from TCoE concerning the customization of ASIs. Therefore, the specific ASIs of the race should not be relevant for the analysis.

How do I figure out how many proficiencies I get at level 1?

My character is a high elf rogue with criminal background. I ended up with proficiencies in acrobatics, deception, investigation, perception, performance, sleight of hand, and stealth.

This gives me 7 skill proficiencies which seems like too many. Did I make a mistake somewhere?

Do you gain additional skills proficiency from race and background? For example, do I get deception and stealth just because I chose criminal?

Do High-elves get perception from keen senses?

Or are these just additional choices I have to pick from?

Overlapping Proficiencies From Leveling?

In my game I’m a Rogue with the Entertainer background. Leveled up enough to pick a subclass and decided on Mastermind for the teamwork possibilities. The subclass gives Disguise Kit proficiency, something I already had from my background. If I do the level up in Beyond it insists I pick a new tool proficiency for my background. But I’m not making a new character, I’m leveling up an existing one. How should I handle this?

So far I’ve been treating it as a glitch with Beyond (it sees characters as ‘new’ even if they have experience being tallied) and ignoring it’s suggestion as anything from levels prior to the current one are effectively set in stone barring DM caveat. Still, would be nice to have a more concrete way of dealing with this than a hand wave.

Utility of Proficiency Bonus in Statblock for Summoned Creatures without Proficiencies?

Looking into Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything, I was reviewing the stat block of the Fey summoned by the Summon Fey spell. Amongst the statistics provided is the Proficiency Bonus of the spirit, defined as "equals [the caster’s] bonus."

The Summoned Fey has no Skill, Tool, or Saving Throw Proficiencies. Presumably the Proficiency Bonus value is already effectively baked into the Shortsword Attack, and the Spell Save DC for its bonus actions, as those are based on the Caster’s Spell Attack and Spell Save DC.

Is there another reason why the Player or DM would need to know this Proficiency Bonus, or is it merely a leftover from using a similar Stat Block for companions that do have proficiencies, such as the Battle Smith’s Steel Defender, or the Homunculus Servant Infusion?

Can a Human Variant start with stacked proficiencies?

So the Human Variant in 5E D&D gets two different ability points, proficiency in one skill and a feat.

Let’s say that human is a cleric with acolyte background. He takes a double dose of religion (Am I wrong in presuming you can do this?), then the proficiency in religion and then the “Skilled Feat” with one of the three skill as religion, can they stack and how?

Can any of the found greater steeds benefit from the weapon proficiencies granted by Tenser’s Transformation?

The mount summoned by the 4th level Paladin spell find greater steed has this interesting ability:

While mounted on it, you can make any spell you cast that targets only you also target the mount.

The 6th level wizard spell Tenser’s tranformation grants weapon proficiencies;

You have proficiency with all armor, shields, simple weapons, and martial weapons.

After casting Tenser’s transformation while riding my found greater steed, technically my mount would have proficiency with all simple and martial weapons.

Obviously the primary issue here is going to be the question of “appropriate anatomy” – can magic that makes the uncoordinated wizard with no weapon skills a martial juggernaut also give my griffon the basic ability to firmly grasp a short sword? Are any of the mounts listed1 able to make use of any of the weapon proficiencies granted by Tenser’s transformation?

1 a griffon, a pegasus, a peryton, a dire wolf, a rhinoceros, or a saber-toothed tiger.

What are the missing proficiencies per level for the Oriental Adventures monk and yakuza?

Oriental Adventures on the class monk says

[T]he monk starts with proficiency in one style of unarmed combat and two of that style’s special maneuvers. The monk also has five other proficiency slots. Of these, one must be used for religion and another calligraphy. The remaining slots can be filled as the player sees fit within the restrictions of the class.” “All monks have the martial arts special maneuver Missile Deflection in addition to the other special maneuvers thay may have or gain. This is not considered part of any martial style and so does not use one of the special maneuver slots for the monk’s chosen martial art. (18)

And on the yakuza it says

Yakuza begin play with three proficiency slots available. In addition, they automatically have the gaming proficiency. (26)

Table 56 (Oriental Adventures 51) shows the proficiencies character classes gain when they advance levels except that the table omits the monk and the yakuza (51). What are these missing values?

For comparison

The Player’s Handbook Weapon Proficiency Table and Unearthed Arcana show the following monk proficiences:

Class of Character | Initial # of Prof | Add Proficiency per Level | Non-proficiency Weapon Penalty Monk               |            1      |  1/2 levels               |     -3   

The Dungeoneer’s Survival Guide on Table 10 (23) and Wilderness Survival Guide on Table 1 (12) have the same proficiency entries for the monk:

Class of Character | Initial # of Proficiencies Weapon/Nonweapon | Add Proficiency per Level Weapon/Nonweapon Monk               |                  1/1                        |   1/1 per 2 levels 

However, using Oriental Adventures, it seems like for the monk and yakuza this information is as follows:

Class of Character | Initial # of Prof | Add Proficiency per Level            | Non-proficiency Weapon Penalty Monk               |         5         | missing (possibly 1/1 per 2 levels?) | -3 from PHB and UA Yakuza             |         3         | missing                              | missing 

…And I’d like to fill in the missing information.

How many skill proficiencies do I choose as a Triton Bard?

I’m extremely new to dnd, and have little understanding on the game so far.

Right now, I’m creating my character, a Triton bard with a folk hero background, and I’m having trouble selecting proficiencies.

I was told that bards have no predetermined skill list to choose from, but that seems weird. I also have absolutely no idea how many skills to choose.

How many skill proficiencies do I choose as a Triton Bard?