How does the cache / memory know where to return results of read requests to?

The pipeline of a modern processor has many stages that may issue read requests to main memory, e.g. in fetching the next command or loading some memory location into a register. How is the result of a read request returned to the right pipeline stage, given that there are more than one possible recipients? Since most CPUs access main memory via a cache hierarchy, the question becomes: how does the L1 cache know which part of the pipeline to return a result to?

I imagine that access to the L1 cache is queued, but each access presumably needs a ‘return address’. How is this typically handled?

What can I read about how we tie the stochastic characteristics of task resolution into statements about a game system’s aesthetics? [closed]

I like making RPG systems. One thing I’ve noticed is that different kinds of task resolution systems make the game significantly different.


For example, games like D&D 3.X and Shadowrun 4E have a very details-oriented approach to task resolution. A typical die roll in combat might be something like 1d20+1+1+4+3+(7+2+3)*1.5+20-2 v.s. 10+8+min(4,1)+5+3+2+5, where each number comes from a different source and things like "I enjoyed breakfast greatly! +3 to hit" and "My shoes are freshly polished for +1 max dex mod to AC" matter greatly.

There are a limited number of modifiers and choosing the right combination for any given character is immensely important to the character’s success in the game.

Other games, like FATE 2.0 or Amber Diceless, have a different approach. There a typical task looks like 5+4dF vs 3+4dF±2. All of the things that are tracked carefully in the first examples are abstracted away into a single modifier. This modifier generally does not exceed 50% of the base skill amount, and is generally regarded as less important than having a higher base skill amount. (In Amber diceless the ‘rolls’ are even more extreme: 1±1 v 3±1 is an example of a task’s mechanical description there).

I am comfortable talking about this kind of difference between RPGs in general. We can talk about levels of abstraction, we can talk about focus, we can describe a system as ‘high-level’ or ‘detail-oriented’ or whatever.

The problem

What I am less comfortable with is the manner in which the stochastic character of a system’s task resolution comes off to participants of RPGs run in it.

For example, I can tell you that the absence of dice in Amber significantly changes the feel of the game versus a similar setting modeled and run in FATE 2.0.
I’m much less articulate as to what the actual differences are, though. I’m aware of some popular pieces on randomness in RPGs, like the ‘goblin dice’ thing, but none of them really talk about the full space of stochastic design available to us as game designers. We can talk about how 2d6 is ‘less swingy’ than 1d13, but how using one or the other more commonly for some hypothetical ruleset would influence our aesthetic perception of that ruleset is not immediately clear.

I’m looking for a published overview of ways that different features of a task resolution system (in terms of stochastic analysis) are relevant to the ‘feel’ (i.e. the perception of aesthetic qualities) of the overall game system from a game-design perspective. In particular, I’m interested in the impact of the magnitude of the stochastic variance of the resolution system on the system, as well as the impact of greater or lesser volatility, and of polynomialization of the distribution (i.e. how binomial, trinomial, etc distribution for a game’s randomizer affects the game’s overall aesthetic).

Basically, I’m looking to read published work addressing the question: How do we tie the stochastic characteristics of task resolution into a statement about the experience of using a particular role-playing game system?

What makes a good answer?

Answers will recommend further reading on the topic to support the claims made in their shorter overview. IJRP preferred. I’m looking for an overview, not a full discussion– it’s sufficient to provide references to appropriate academic literature and to explain how, and that, that literature answers the question. Also, since comments indicate that people are seeking primarily for online sources, let it be explicitly mentioned that offline sources like books are no less good for their being offline (RPGs may be young, but they most certainly predate widespread internet use).

why can’t we protect the password file so that only the system can read it?

can’t we design an OS in such a way that it doesn’t allow anyone(not even root) to read the passwords file?. Then there will be no need for encrypting the passwords. Why can’t we hard-code a computer to hide it’s password file?

I was reading Cuckoo’s egg by Clifford Stoll on page 32, I didn’t understand why encrypting passwords is necessary why can’t we program the computer so that it ‘hides’ the password file from all users?

here is the excerpt:

When your computer has fifty or a hundred users, you might just store each person’s password in a file. When the user tries to log on, ask for her password and compare that to what’s in your file. In a friendly environment, no problem. But how do you keep someone from sneaking a peek at that password file? Well, protect the password file so that only the system can read it. Even if you protect the password file, every now and then all the files will be copied onto backup tapes. Even a novice programmer could read those tapes on another computer and list the contents of the password file. File protection alone isn’t enough. In 1975, Bob Morris and Fred Grampp of Bell Laboratories developed a way to protect passwords, even when files weren’t secure. They would rely on encryption, rather than file protection.

DB2 Read – Write locks

I am working on a web application which involves inventory management. My application uses DB2 as the database.

1)In my application, there is a module which just inserts the records. This can happen at anytime since the records are entered by customers.

  1. And there is another stand along module which reads and updates the records entered. This module never Inserts records. It just updates. And this module is scheduled so it will run once an hour.

My question is, the second module can read and update the records without an issue if the first module is inserting a record at the same time? I am not referring to the record just being entered at the time but the other records in the table that needs processing. ( Bottom line is when first module inserts data, can my second module read and update data in separate rows at the same time ? )

I am very new to DB2 and heard about the locking in DB2. That is why I raised this question.

Thank you in advance.

Google Search Console cannot read my XML: Sitemap appears to be an HTML page

I’m working on a web application written with AngularJS (v8) and deployed on an apache2 using proxy to forward requests (frontend, api, backoffice).

My problem is that I’m trying to submit the sitemap ({website}/sitemap.xml) on Google, but Google Search Console keep saying that it’s not valid: Google can read the link but it seem to be in HTML


My sitemap: sitemap

I tried to validate that XML on many website and I didn’t find any error.

I mentioned apache2 because maybe when Google try to fetch the URL, before finding the XML, apache give another page but I cannot prove that. I tried in many ways and the first page that I see when opening the URL is the sitemap and nothing else.

In my angular.json I added the file in the assets as follow:

"assets": ["src/favicon.ico", "src/assets", "src/sitemap.xml"],

What it can be?

Thank you

Can Dragonbait read or write Common, since he is able to understand it?

In D&D 5e, Tomb of Annihilation includes Dragonbait, a saurial. His stat block claims that he can understand Common but not speak it, due to the strange way in which saurials communicate. From Tomb of Annihilation, p. 218:

Languages understands Common but can’t speak

Is there any evidence, either in 5e (which I assume is just what’s presented in Tomb of Annihilation) or anything from previous editions of D&D, that suggests that Dragonbait (whether it’s about Dragonbait specifically or saurials generally) can read or write Common, since he can apparently understand it?

What happens when a Demon tries to Read an Angel’s Mind?

What happens if a Demon tries the Mind Reading form ability on an angel? The rules from the DtD manual state:

System: The demon only has to see her intended target; the target does not have to see the demon or know she is there. As a reflexive action, the player rolls her Wits + Persuasion + Primum vs. Resolve + Primum. If successful, the demon can read the surface thoughts of the victim for as long as she maintains concentration.

It’s odd that the manual assumes that the Demon is trying to read the mind of another Demon (hence the “vs. Resolve + Primum”). Angel’s don’t have Resolve, so maybe Resistance+Rank?

If it’s successful, does the Demon know that the target is an Angel? Does the Angel have any way to detect the use of an ability on them? Otherwise, this seems like a perfect Angel-detector.

what is an example of out of bounds read in order to leak sensitive information?

I Am trying to understand a little bit better behind the scenes on bypassing aslr by reading the bytes in the memory of a process, but how can I make an example of an info leak in WIN32? my code does the leaks of bytes , but how can I check the image base based on those bytes?

#include <stdio.h> #include <string.h>  int main(int argc, char **argv) {     char a[16];      strncpy(a, "0123456789abcdef", sizeof(a));      //... lots of code passes, functions are called...     //... we finally come back to array a ...      printf("%s\n", a); } 

get_user can’t read variable

I have this little routine to find the user_id based on a usermeta field..

$  scaleData = json_decode($  reading, TRUE); $  deviceid = $  scaleData["imei"]; echo $  deviceid; // check to confirm is working. Yup  $  WhoIsUser = get_users(   array(    'meta_key' => 'deviceid',    'meta_value' => '$  deviceid'  ) );  $  CurrentUser = $  WhoIsUser[0]->ID; echo $  CurrentUser; //returns nothing 

But if I switch ‘meta_value’ => 45455 (iow a known device number) it returns the ID no problem. I’ve tried both $ deviceid and ‘$ deviceid’ What am I missing?

Can anyone read the inscription on the 3rd edition Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting cover?

The cover for the book in question has inscriptions in the espruar script on its outer circle. According to one of the authors, it means: “ We remember cities now in ruin and forests murdered, yet still we sing to the stars and hope for renewal.”

I’m trying to find out how it’s pronounced in elven. Does anyone have a copy of the book, or a good quality image that they can read?