Analyzing space complexity of passing data to function by reference

I have some difficulties with understanding the space complexity of the following algorithm. I’ve solved this problem subsets on leetcode. I understand why solutions’ space complexity would be O(N * 2^N), where N – the length of the initial vector. In all those cases all the subsets (vectors) are passed by value, so we contain every subset in the recursion stack. But i passed everything by reference. This is my code:

class Solution { public: vector<vector<int>> result; void rec(vector<int>& nums, int &position, vector<int> &currentSubset) {     if (position == nums.size()) {         result.push_back(currentSubset);         return;     }          currentSubset.push_back(nums[position]);     position++;     rec(nums, position, currentSubset);     currentSubset.pop_back();     rec(nums, position, currentSubset);     position--; }  vector<vector<int>> subsets(vector<int>& nums) {     vector <int> currentSubset;     int position = 0;     rec(nums, position, currentSubset);     return result; } }; 

Would the space complexity be O(N)? As far as i know, passing by reference doesn’t allocate new memory, so every possible subset would be contained in the same vector, which was created before the recursion calls.

I would also appreciate, if you told me how to estimate the space complexity, when working with references in general. Those are the only cases, where i hesitate about the correctness of my reasonings.

Thank you.

Looking for a 3.5 reference to a Monster Harvester’s Handbook

Back in the day, someone had created a handbook for harvesting parts from monsters. They went through every monster in the SRD and chose parts (and fairly reasonable prices for those parts). I was wondering if anyone knew of a link to the old material. I can only find links to 5e versions, which is not what I am looking for.

I believe there were multiple versions, and the one I vaguely recollect was a Word document. I also think there was an Excel version, IIRC, I was not as fond of that one (I do not recall why, as this was many years ago).

relocation error: symbol SSL_trace version OPENSSL_1_1_0 not defined in file with link time reference

I compiled and using openssl1.1.1d using command ./config -d enable-ssl-trace. when i use and and run my the apps. it show me this relocation error. i checked and found SSL_trace is it OPENSSL_1_1_0 global feature. May I know how can I make it defined in file

“Column check constraint cannot reference other columns”


The type or namespace name ‘RigidBody2D’ could not be found (are you missing a using directive or an assembly reference?) [duplicate]

using System.Collections; using System.Collections.Generic; using.UnityEngine;

public class Player_Move_Proto : MonoBehaviour { public int playerSpeed = 10; public bool facingRight = true; public int playerJumpPower = 1250; public float moveX;

// Update is called once per frame void Update() {    PlayerMove (); }  void PlayerMove() {     moveX = Input.GetAxis("Horizontal");      if (moveX < 0.0f && facingRight == false){         FlipPlayer ();    }    else if (moveX > 0.0f && facingRight == true) {       FlipPlayer ();           }     gameObject.GetComponent<RigidBody2D>().velocity = new Vector2 (moveX * playerSpeed, gameObject.GetComponent<RigidBody2D>().velocity.y); }  void Jump() {  }  void FlipPlayer() {  } 


Android studio reference

Being weak at English, I face many challenges in coding as I often miss the meaning or purpose of a method especially in java. What I ask for is not a course but simply a mini dictionnary hilighting the important java classes and methods of android especially game-related ones. Thank you

UE4. How to create a reference to the physical materialin in C++

Oftenly, when we want to assign asset to the particular component in C++ we write code like that:

.h  UPROPERTY(BlueprintReadWrite) UStaticMeshComponent* Body = nullptr;  .cpp  Body = CreateDefaultSubobject<UStaticMeshComponent>("Mesh Component"); // find mesh asset auto MeshForBody = ConstructorHelpers::FObjectFinder<UStaticMesh>(TEXT                         ("StaticMesh'/Game/StarterContent/Shapes/Shape_Sphere.Shape_Sphere'")); if (MeshForBody.Object != nullptr) {// if asset is finded -> set to the component     Body->SetStaticMesh(MeshForBody.Object); } 

Question: how can I set the PhysicalMaterial in C++ through the reference to the asset in editor? Is it possible?

.h     UPROPERTY(EditDefaultsOnly)     UPhysicalMaterial* MyPhysicalMaterial = nullptr;  .cpp      ??? 

THNX for any tips in advance 😉

reference on relating Post systems to string rewriting systems and formal grammars?

wikipedia states:

Every Post canonical system can be reduced to a string rewriting system (semi-Thue system) […] It has been proved that any Post canonical system is reducible to such a substitution system, which, as a formal grammar, is also called a phrase-structure grammar, or a type-0 grammar in the Chomsky hierarchy

and on a different page:

A semi-Thue system is also a special type of Post canonical system, but every Post canonical system can also be reduced to an SRS.

I have not been able to find much explanation of these statements.

Is there a good reference that shows how to do conversions between these notions?

Passing a non-mutable argument by value or by reference?

A function can generally be defined to receive parameters by value or by reference. If we want to mutate an object inside the function and have those changes reflected outside the function, then it must be passed by reference.

If we don’t want to mutate the object then we can choose between passing by value or by reference. The choice, in my experience, is based on whether or not it’s expensive to copy the object. If it’s cheaper to copy than to deal with the reference’s indirection – pass by value, else – pass by reference.

1) Are there any other considerations that should be taken into account?

2) Wouldn’t a compiler be better suited to make this choice instead of the programmer? Why, or why not?

To illustrate question 2, the programmer could simply indicate whether they intend to mutate an argument or not. If an argument will be mutated then it must be passed by reference. If it won’t be mutated, then the compiler can choose between passing by value or by reference – whichever is faster.

3) Do you see any pitfalls in this approach to language/compiler design?