Are there industry standards or specs for image sensor resistance to damage from intense light?

While the occasional snapshot that includes the sun is generally safe, there are certainly combinations of lens and duration that can damage an image sensor if the sun or other sufficiently bright light source is present.

Are there industry standards or specifications for some minimum safe conditions of light exposure at the image sensor’s surface? I’m asking about a spec that relates to the intensity at the surface of the sensor, so I’d expect that “industry” refers to sensor manufacturers.

Loosely speaking: is there some minimal, established test condition that most sensors can reliably survive without damage?

Can creatures with Spell Resistance voluntarily fail saving throws?

Pathfinder’s magic rules say that a creature with “special resistance to magic” can voluntarily fail a saving throw against a spell.

Voluntarily Giving up a Saving Throw

A creature can voluntarily forego a saving throw and willingly accept a spell’s result. Even a character with a special resistance to magic can suppress this quality.

But the rules for spell resistance seem to imply the opposite, that a creature would need to drop its spell resistance before being affected by the spell.

A creature can voluntarily lower its spell resistance. Doing so is a standard action that does not provoke an attack of opportunity. Once a creature lowers its resistance, it remains down until the creature’s next turn. At the beginning of the creature’s next turn, the creature’s spell resistance automatically returns unless the creature intentionally keeps it down (also a standard action that does not provoke an attack of opportunity).

I’m confused how these rules interact. If a creature with SR hasn’t lowered their SR, can they voluntarily fail the save without a caster level check from the caster? Or does “special resistance to magic” refer to something other than SR?

Does a Demon with Magic Resistance have advantage on saving throws cause by Summon Greater Demon spell?

Assuming I use summon greater demon (Xanathar’s Guide to Everything, p. 166) and chose a demon with the Magic Resistance trait. Does Magic Resistance grant the demon advantage on his end turn saving throw against the summon greater demon spell?

preimage resistance

I’m struggling to get a clear understanding of second preimage resistance and collision resistance.

Research on the internet yielded the following definitions:

Second pre-image resistance

Given an input m1, it should be difficult to find a different input m2 such that hash(m1) = hash(m2). Functions that lack this property are vulnerable to second-preimage attacks.

Collision resistance

It should be difficult to find two different messages m1 and m2 such that hash(m1) = hash(m2). Such a pair is called a cryptographic hash collision. This property is sometimes referred to as strong collision resistance. It requires a hash value at least twice as long as that required for pre-image resistance; otherwise collisions may be found by a birthday attack.

As far as I understand, every collision resistant hash function is also second pre-image resistant.

I don’t understand why collision resistance is harder to achieve, given that input m1 of second pre-image resistance could still be theoretically any input in the domain of the hash function.