Algorithm to figure our deps in a graph that can resolve deps from cache (dictionary) of walked paths

I have a graph like this that starts from one top node and has cycles:

enter image description here

I need to write an algorithm to figure if node1 depends on node2. The most primitive algorithm I’ve written simply starts with node1 and recursively follows all available edges looking for node2 starting from node1. It’s very inefficient because I traverse the graph over and over again. I’m wondering if there’s an algorithm I can look at that caches nodes and dependencies it already walked through so that I don’t go through paths I’ve walked once and can figure if there’s a dependency or not from cache?

For example, if I’m given node D and the question is whether it depends on node F, I’ll walk D->E->F, and when next time I get the question if node E depends on F, I’ll get that from cache without walking the graph.

Thanks for any ideas and suggestions!

How to resolve multiple sources of cover?

The cover rules in the PHB say:

There are three degrees of cover. If a target is behind multiple sources of cover, only the most protective degree of cover applies; the degrees aren’t added together. For example, if a target is behind a creature that gives half cover and a tree trunk that gives three-quarters cover, the target has three-quarters cover.

However the DMG (250/251) appears to have an alternate method for resolving multiple sources of cover:

To determine whether a target has cover against an attack or other effect on a grid, choose a corner of the attacker’s space or the point of origin of an area of effect. Then trace imaginary lines from that corner to every corner of any one square the target occupies. If one or two of those lines are blocked by an obstacle (including another creature), the target has half cover. If three or four of those lines are blocked but the attack can still reach the target (such as when the target is behind an arrow slit), the target has three-quarters cover.

The only case I can think where these might collide is something like the following:

multiple character cover

Individually T would not get cover from D1 or D3 and only get half cover from D2. The DMG seems to indicate T might get full cover since all 4 lines would be blocked. However if you use the guidance from the PHB (as shown above) T would only have half cover.

Seems to me it’s just a judgement call which interpretation is correct. Anyone know of any rules that clarify this other than a judgement call?

How can I resolve a repeatable skill check when there’s no time constraint or clear drawback from repeating it? [duplicate]

Willem Renzema’s answer to "Can you Investigate the same room twice?" and abalonemacaroni’s answer to "I failed to open a lock. Now what?" seem to lean towards the idea that if an ability check can be repeated indefinitely given enough time, a drawback should occur on each failed attempt to offset that.

But how can I resolve a repeatable skill check when there’s no time constraint or clear drawback from repeating it?

For example, making a History check in a library, lockpicking a safe that you’ve already stolen and brought back to your hostel, or making an Investigation check on an emptied dungeon, etc.

Basically, it feels like they are going to succeed in both cases, and the roll looks useless.

1captchas resolve recapcha2

1 captchas supports Recaptcha2. But in the integration of api in GSA-SER there is nothing about recaptcha in this service.

I want to hire him as the third and last of the solvers, basically because he solves texts, but it’s fine that he adds recapcha2 and so if anyone passes from capmonster he would get there. I will leave 2captcha.

My question is, if the configuration with api that is in GSA-SER will also send you the recapchas, I hope you update it if necessary

How could I resolve the sleep spell action when using Minions in 5E?

I use Minions in my 5E campaign at times. I use them as canon fodder and their hit points are non-existent. Meaning, they have an AC of X and if the PC lands any hit, they are dead.

(I read that in 4E that Minions had only 1 hit point.)

What are the ways I could resolve the Sleep Spell action if the PC’s snuck up on a campsite or cave with multiple Minions who were unaware of their presence?

Looking for Rules as Intended. (only because I don’t believe their is RAW)

How to resolve the Format String Error alert in OWASP ZAP for a web application (ASP.NET C#)?

I have a web application with a log in page. In the log in page, I’ve set maxlength for the username input and the password input, which looks like the code below.

@Html.TextBoxFor(m => m.Username, new { @maxlength="30"}) 

When I run OWASP ZAP, it gives me an alert with the following description.

A Format String error occurs when the submitted data of an input string is evaluated as a command by the application

Potential Format String Error. The script closed the connection on a /%s

But when I remove @maxlength="30", the alert goes away.

I’ve been trying to find the remediation for this alert, but I’ve read that Format String vulnerability doesn’t really exist in C#: Do format string vulnerabilities exist in C# or Java? .

Is it just a “potential” error and nothing to worry about because it’s in C#? Or.. if this is something that needs to be taken care of, what can be done to resolve this alert from OWASP ZAP? (I’d believe removing @maxlength is not a solution).

How to resolve fundamental differences in perspective between players and DM about the roles each has in decision making?

To give context: I am a DM running a D&D 5e campaign set in a home-brew setting for the better part of a year. A few months ago I suggested having an alternate “gaiden” style campaign set in the same setting in which the same set of characters go on short adventures with rotating DMs that could be used during sessions where some players were not available to play. During this winter holiday, one of my players was unable to make sessions and I implemented this system with myself taking the first turn as DM. All players were given invitations to the campaign and given character sheets on our role play app, including the non-available player. The adventure was expanded as the players came to enjoy the narrative and I had new ideas, and is now reaching towards its conclusion. My absent player recently became available again and expressed interest in joining in this campaign. I said yes, some members of the group said no.

While the exact argument was long and circuitous with some hurt feelings, the basic salient points from each side were:

Against Joining

  • Inclusion of new members of the campaign are group decisions.
  • Introducing new characters towards the end of the campaign disrupts the narrative.
  • By making an executive decision under DM purview from the get go, I am undermining their perspectives and feelings by “laying down the law” and not listening to their side. (This might be true.)

For Joining

  • The player is part of the pre-existing group and is not a new member as this adventure is an extension of main campaign.
  • While players are encouraged to add to the narrative, what is and is not narrative appropriate falls under the domain of the DM as stated on pages 5 & 6 of the 5e Players Handbook.
  • Additionally, I have interesting narrative plans involved with his character, that several players and DM’s outside of this group approve of.
  • As the DM, I serve as referee. As I view this player as a pre-existing group member, it comes under my purview to make judgement calls how certain player on player issues are resolved. This has been the case before when other players had issues with class abilities overlapping over each others roles and could not come to a compromise, and certain players having issue with role-play issues overshadowing other players. In both cases I had to make official DM statements to resolve the issue.
  • As a DM I have a prerogative to enjoy myself during these sessions else I lose interest in the game and it dies. Excluding a player who I see as part of the group who has done nothing wrong do to what I feel is pressure from a large minority of players does not sit right with me and would impede in my enjoyment.

In the end, I said that I will not exclude anyone member of the group at the behest of the others for what I see as a non-issue, and several player were upset with this decision, seeing it as inappropriate, with at least one player leaving the group outright.

So how do I this resolve fundamental differences in perspective between players and DM about the roles each has in decision making? Am I in the right for making the decision I did? If so, how do I resolve this group dynamic issue? If not, how do I repair these ingresses?

What story arcs does the Tomb of Annihilation adventure (as written) fail to resolve?

It is said that you can give a story a more satisfying and powerful ending by simultaneously closing multiple story arcs at the end of a story (per screenwriting coaches like Robert Mckee – the teacher who inspired Peter Jackson to rewrite Lord of the Rings into what we saw onscreen.) For example, it was recently reported that the writers for Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker found 24 unclosed character arcs that they could close with the final movie. They closed those arcs to give the movie more narrative impact.

I have been brought in as a substitute DM to finish the last 2-3 episodes of an almost eight month campaign of Tomb of Annihilation spanning over 30 sessions. (I was chosen to help maintain continuity because I am a former player with knowledge of their campaign.)

It would be great to give the ending of TOA a great sense of closure and feel epic as if the PCs have accomplished something important and the world recognizes it.

But, reading ToA it is clear that there are a variety of unclosed story arcs. As written, the ending feels a little abrupt. There are a few comments about how if the PCs saved a particular character then they receive treasure as promised and a few words about future adventures, but that’s about it. It feels a bit unfinished – like Star Wars: A New Hope might feel without the throne scene or Return of the Jedi without the scenes of celebration across the many planets.

The ToA authors left a variety of open story arcs for the DM to close.

For example…

That said, there are hundreds of pages of adventure – and clearly the authors opened a variety of arcs, many of them closed, and some portion left open – but it can be a challenge to find and remember all those arcs even having been a player.

It would be great to have a list of those unclosed story arcs so we as DMs can create scenes to close those arcs to help give that more satisfying “Mckee-an” sense of completion.

So the question is, what are the story arcs that are opened in ToA’s story that were unclosed in the module?

We are looking for a bulleted list of opened arc story elements that the authors left unclosed or for which the authors didn’t outline the scenes for closing them.

Unity 2D: Can’t resolve ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range

I am very much a novice to coding with no background on this at all so the code you see here may be terrible.

Basically I’m making an endless runner, made up of a player character and a set of obstacle prefabs. The obstacle prefabs have a trigger on them so that when the player hits it, it spawns the next prefab. I’m using the code below, and when the player hits the first spawn trigger it will spawn a prefab, but on tripping the next trigger it gives me the ArgumentOutOfRangeException error in the console and doesn’t spawn anything.

public class ObsTrigger : MonoBehaviour {

 public GameObject spawnTrigger;  [SerializeField] private List<Transform> obstacleList;   private void OnTriggerEnter2D(Collider2D other)  {      if (other.CompareTag("Player"))      {          for (int i = 0; i < obstacleList.Count; i++)          {              spawnObstacle();          }      }  }   public void spawnObstacle()  {      {          Transform chosenLevelPart = obstacleList[Random.Range(0, obstacleList.Count -1)];          Instantiate(chosenLevelPart);      }  } 


If anyone can point me in the right direction I would really appreciate it!