Where and when did “the GM is always right” get codified first?

In a recent answer about GM-ming in D&D, I had to resort to a certain “universal” rule I’m familiar with: “the GM is always right”. Upon this doppelgreener correctly pointed out that it is not universal about all games but a/the core of the D&D mentality. In the chat then kviiri pointed out that “The GM is always right” is actually a pretty crap rule by itself. This “universal rule” also might have other names, like “Golden Rule” or “Rule 0”, but that is not part of the question.1

Now I wonder: Where and when did “The GM is always right” or rather “The GM has the final say in any question” actually got codified in an RPG for the first time?

This is not about when the GM is asked to improvise or to handle something akin to his own GM Fiat; it is about where such a statement was first mentioned in a print product explicitly or implicitly. It has been used in various variants as far as I know, and to various extents. Some examples of these “The GM is always right” statements:

  • Hc Svnt Dracones, p5:

    The Guide […]They also have the final call on rules disputes and typically control what stays and what goes if something seems out of line.

  • Sengoku Revised Edition, p7:

    The GM Rules – This is not a democracy. The GM is the boss. You should feel free to ask questions, but when a ruling is made, accept it.

  • And in Paranoia 25th Aniversary Edition, p40 (and in this case the emphasis is not added):

    GM Rule #1. You are IN CHARGE. You are ALWAYS RIGHT.

    We give you these rules as guidance. Use them when you do not know what you’d like to have happen in the game. When you do know, ignore them. We have tried to make the rules as helpful and powerful as we can, but if you don’t like a rule, the rule is wrong. Good rules help a lot but bad rules were made to be broken, tortured, lobotomised and summarily executed. Dice are handy for giving players the illusion they control their destiny. This is valuable but roll your dice out of the players’ sight, behind a screen. If a die roll gives you a result you don’t like, the die is wrong. Change the result to the number you want. You can dock the die credits or beat it up, though in our experience this has little effect.

1 – I am fully aware that both Golden Rule and Rule 0 sometimes refer to “GM is right” and sometimes to “Have fun”.

Error: Expected a right parenthesis in expression at (1) after `make` command

I am compiling a software following this tutorial (called PRESTO), but when I type ./configure, I receive the following message:

$   make && sudo make install Making all in src make[1]: enter directory "/home/user/Softwares/tempo/src" /usr/bin/f77  -g -O2 -c -o bnryddfwhiecc.o bnryddfwhiecc.f bnryddfwhiecc.f:130:71: Error: Expected a right parenthesis in expression at (1) Makefile:468: set of instructions for the objective "bnryddfwhiecc.o" failed  make[1]: *** [bnryddfwhiecc.o] Error 1 make[1]: exit directory "/home/user/Softwares/tempo/src" Makefile:359: set of instructions for the objective "all-recursive" failed make: *** [all-recursive] Errore 1 

I believe it has to do with the excessive length of the lines in the code. I have tried to add a & character to the sixth column of the “following” line, or right after the end of the long line, basically what is said here, but did not work.

I would rather use a command to disable the long-lines errors, instead of going to modify each line of each file. But I do not know enough to take actions.

Calcluate Mesh top, bottom, left and right position relative to mouse click position on the mesh

I have a mesh (suppose it can be circle, or rectangular,square or an arc). The geometry of the mesh can be anything. I can click on mesh at any position. From relative to the clicked position, I want to get its right, left top and bottom position of the mesh. Maybe the picture explain it better then my words enter image description here

Right filter for rewriting page statuscode

I am new to developing wordpress plugins. But I am looking to write a fairly simple plugin.

I want to write a plugin that rewrites the returned status code based on some logic that consults a database. It can essentially be boiled down to an access plugin based on custom logic. When authorization fails I want to either return statuscode 403 or redirect to a login page.

But I am struggling to find the right place to hook in. And also the “correct” way of doing it.

The logic is based on a combination of the Page requested, the logged in user and that users role. Using these values I look up information in a database and either render some custom data or want to turn the user away. If the user is logged in I want to return a 403 but if the user is not logged in I want to return a 401. But is that even the right way of doing it in WordPress? I am used to writing APIs and have never written a WordPress plugin.

Should I render a text that says Content not available! instead of a 403 and redirect the user to the login page instead of a 401?

Ideally I would like to separate the logic that renders the data and the logic that authorizes. I would like that to be two different hooks or filters.

I have tried to add a filter on http_response but I can’t get it to do anything. I am in doubt if I should call apply_filter myself or if WordPress does that.

All help is appreciated.