if you use Enhance Ability: Cat’s Grace on a creature that rolls initiative, does that creature lose the better roll when the spell ends?

Let’s say the caster uses Enhance Ability and chooses Cat’s Grace on themselves and rolls a 13 and a 16 with advantage on initiative, so they take 16. If the caster then loses Enhance Ability in-combat, or ends concentration on that spell, does their initiative roll revert to 13?

For a basic unarmed strike, is only the proficiency bonus included in the attack roll, or is the Strength modifier also added?

The Player’s Handbook, Chapter 9, states about attack rolls:

The ability modifier used for a melee weapon attack is Strength

A bit later on it also states about melee attacks:

Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage equal to 1 + your Strength modifier. You are proficient with your unarmed strikes.

I’m not sure whether an unarmed strike is considered a “melee weapon attack.”

For a basic unarmed strike (i.e. no Monk, Tavern Brawler or anything else that enhances unarmed strikes), is only the proficiency bonus added to the attack roll, or is the Strength modifier also added?

Clearly the Strength modifier is added to the damage, but I’m asking about the attack roll.

When aiming to roll for a 50/50, does the die size matter?

I noticed how D&D 5e’s Hexblade Warlock subclass feature Armor of Hexes imposes a chance to miss regardless of the attacker’s roll. That chance is based on a d6: if it’s a 4 or higher it misses, and anything else it hits if the attack should have hit. To my understanding, this is simply a 50/50 roll on the d6 (success on 4, 5, 6, failure on 1, 2 and 3).

Out of curiousity, does it matter if the dice is a d4, d8, or even d100, as long as it’s an even-sided die and that it’s still 50/50? (On a d4 it would be a success on a 3 and 4, on a d10 it’s 6 and up, and so on.)

Does the duration of the invisibility from the Firbolg’s Hidden Step trait allow me to make an attack roll with advantage on the following turn?

The firbolg’s Hidden Step trait (VGtM, p. 107) is described as being active "until the start of your next turn" at most:

As a bonus action, you can magically turn invisible until the start of your next turn

I’m unclear on the exact mechanics of turn starts. For instance, if I use Hidden Step as a bonus action at the end of my turn, would the invisibility stay active for my next attack?

My initial reading was "no" as the trait would stay active from when I use it, into the next round, and drop as soon as my turn came up in the initiative order. I would then become visible, and take my action. This also gels conceptually: I can use Hidden Step to protect myself from combat for a round, or I can use it to gain advantage on an attack. But I can’t use it for both.

However, I’ve also read that advantage for invisibility is determined at the start of the round, and thus the advantage would in fact carry over to the next round’s attack, as if I was attacking from hiding or something similar.

Which is it, and what source would resolve it?

(Occult Adventures) When do I roll my saves when opening/maintaining Chakras?

https://www.d20pfsrd.com/alternative-rule-systems/occult-adventures/occult-rules/chakras/

As far as I can tell it isn’t specified whether you make the save during the swift action but before benefiting from the Chakra(s), during the swift action but after benefiting, or at the end of your turn. Mainly I’d like to know if the Crown Chakra’s "roll twice on all d20’s and take the higher result" boon would apply to the Fortitude & Will saves on the turn it gets opened.

Casting Guidance cantrip for every roll?

What prevents a cleric from casting the Guidance spell every single turn and having everyone have 1D4 extra for their rolls, especially since you can combo it with this:

It seems like every skill check should always be made with advantage due to the 'Working Together' rules. Is this accurate?

This can end with almost all the checks being a D20+1D4 plus advantage. Seems a bit broken mechanic without some houseruling that prevents the same spell on the same target for some time, or I am missing some rule that prevents this?

The same would affect Resistance, but since you probably are in the middle of a combat, the Touch range could prevent it effectively, but for normal skill rolls where the touch of the cleric is possible and the situation is not stressing?

How to handle degrees of success in roll under systems

I’m working on an RPG system that uses 2d6 roll under Skill for resolutions. On paper this system looks really good so far, but I have one major issue: Degrees of Success, especially when it comes to Contest (Skill vs Skill) resolutions.

Status Quo

Your character’s Attribute + Skill (e.g. Charisma + Persuasion) form a Target Number that’s between 2 and 12. You roll 2d6, sum them, and the sum has to be equal to or lower than the Target Number. Rolling a 1 has a special positive meaning, rolling a 6 has a special negative meaning. Additionally, 2 ones are always a success, 2 sixes are always a failure, regardless of Skill.

The problem

Imagine 2 parties contesting each other:

  • Character A has a Target Number of 5 (pretty bad), and character B has a Target Number of 10 (pretty good).
  • Character A rolls a 5 and succeeds. Character B and rolls a 6 and succeeds.
  • Character B has the better Degree of Success, as the margin between the player’s roll and the character’s Skill is bigger than for Character A.

If you say that lower is better, a character with Target Number 2 (very, very bad), who rolled a 2, will always have a better Degree of Success over a character with a Target Number 12 (very, very good), who rolled a 3.

Naive solution

My approach was to subtract the rolled number from the character’s Skill. You have a Target Number of 6 and rolled a 4? 6-4=2. You have a Target Number of 11 and rolled a 3? 11-3=8. It works, but I’m worried that this resolution will be too slow for actual play – we all know these sessions that last for hours and nobody is able to count straight anymore.

The best solution would allow a player to determine the Degree of Success/Failure in the same step to see if the character succeeded or not.

Other systems

Other systems that handle Degrees of Success for rolling under mechanics:

  • Call of Cthulhu: You have certain threesholds (half your skill, 1/5 your skill) at which you score an increased Degree of Success. – very coarse when you only have 2d6 instead of a 1d100 (but could work)
  • Unknown Armies: Basically like Black Jack–you roll under your Skill threshold, but as high as possible. Doubles (11, 22, 33) are criticals. – sadly doesn’t work, as ones and sixes have a special meaning. Flipping the meaning (6 is good, 1 is bad) also is iffy, as it’s flipping the understanding, that you have to roll under a threshold.
  • ???

What other systems or resolution systems are there, that tackle this problem?

If you have dis/advantage on a roll, do you have dis/advantage on a reroll?

This might be a duplicate but I can’t find it.

To be clear this has nothing to do with Halfling Luck trait. Or similar abilities that allow the reroll of a die that rolls a natural 1. (I was apparently incorrect though.)

This has to do with a situation such as the Path of the Zealot barbarian’s Fanatical Focus feature (Xanathar’s Guide to Everything, p. 11), which lets you reroll a save that you fail:

Starting at 6th level, the divine power that fuels your rage can protect you. If you fail a saving throw while you’re raging, you can reroll it, and you must use the new roll. You can use this ability only once per rage.

Situation: Barbarian fails his save and is afflicted with bestow curse. Now he has disadvantage on Constitution checks and saves. He is targeted with disintegrate and fails his save. Using Fanatical Focus, he chooses to reroll that save. He would obviously have disadvantage again since the curse is ongoing. I think we could all agree to that.

However, what if the disadvantage or advantage was only imposed for that effect? Such as a Sorcerer using the Heightened Spell metamagic option:

When you cast a spell that forces a creature to make a saving throw to resist its effects, you can spend 3 sorcery points to give one target of the spell disadvantage on its first saving throw made against the spell.

The ability says you “reroll that save”, therefore I argue that you would have disadvantage again as it would still be the first saving throw against the spell albeit a meta-game solutioning of that resolution.

I was unable to find anything on Sageadvice.eu although it is getting harder to sift that data. And I did not find anything in the errata or the Sage Advice Compendium (2017).

Is there anything to support this ruling in the rules that I missed?

This seems intuitive and intended however I see nothing that alludes to it.

Do I need to use the All-Purpose Tool as my spellcasting focus to gain the benefits to the attack roll and saving throw?

In Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything pg.119 it’s presented a magic item called All-Purpose Tool, which has the following text in it’s description:

[…] While holding this tool, you gain a bonuss to the spell attack rolls and the saving throw DCs of your artificer spells. The bonus is determined by the tool’s rarity.

When it states that you need to hold the tool to gain this benefit, does this also imply that I need to use it as my spellcasting focus as well? Or can I just hold it with one hand and use the other hand to hold another spellcasting focus and still gain this benefit?