How does Spell Sniper effect spells that allow ranged spell attacks on subsequent rounds? [duplicate]

The spells Crown of Stars, Storm Sphere, and Wall of Light all allow you to make ranged attacks on subsequent rounds.

Wall of Light

Until the spell ends, you can use an action to launch a beam of radiance from the wall at one creature you can see within 60 feet of it. Make a ranged spell attack. On a hit, the target takes 4d8 radiant damage.

Storm Sphere

Until the spell ends, you can use a bonus action on each of your turns to cause a bolt of lightning to leap from the center of the sphere toward one creature you choose within 60 feet of the center. Make a ranged spell attack. You have advantage on the attack roll if the target is in the sphere. On a hit, the target takes 4d6 lightning damage.

Crown of Stars

You can use a bonus action to send one of the motes streaking toward one creature or object within 120 feet of you. When you do so, make a ranged spell attack. On a hit, the target takes 4d12 radiant damage.

The spell sniper feat says:

When you cast a spell that requires you to make an attack roll, the spell’s range is doubled.

To use all of the spells effects, you are required to make an attack roll. That is, they have functions that don’t work without a attack roll.

Is that reading correct, and if so which of the ranges in each spell are effected?

Do 10 second turns/60 second rounds make spellcasters horrible?

My DM insists on the combat being 10 seconds per turn and the round time to be the sum of all turn times (so a minute for 6 participants, for example). I am aware that this is not how turn/round time normally works.

This makes many spells with 1 minute durations like Hold Monster last at most a round.

I am playing a Fiend Warlock and I am worried it’ll seriously underpower my character compared to non-spellcasters. Many spells available to me are supposed to last up to encounter-long (Hold Monster, Hunger of Hadar, Vampiric Touch, Hold Monster, Eyebite to name a few). Am I rightly worried, or overreacting? Are other spells sufficient for me to carry my weight?

How many rounds does a spell with a duration of 1 minute last?

If a concentration spell lasts for one minute (60 seconds, 10 rounds), when does one start counting down how much time it has left? Does the round you cast it in count towards how long it stays active?

First example, what if I use Aura of Vitality, which uses an action to cast then a bonus action can be taken to heal a target? The spell lasts for 1 minute, or 10 rounds. So on the turn I cast it I can use a bonus action to immediately use it, then do I get 9 more rounds or 10 more?

What about spells like Moonbeam, which don’t take effect on your turn? Moonbeam activates when a creature enters it or starts its turn there. If you’re first to go in a round then you’ll get 10 uses out of it, but if you’re last does that mean you only now get 9 uses out of it since it acts during an opponents turn?

Does Sacred Flame or Firebolt do more damage on average to a Shadow over an arbitrary but finite number of rounds?

Assume the following character build:

Level 2 Variant Human Wild Magic Sorcerer with Magic Initiate Feat; relevant spells are Sacred Flame and Fire Bolt. While I don’t think character level is relevant, it is included in case an ability plays a larger roll than anticipated.

Ability Scores:
STR: 8 (-1)
DEX: 14 (+2)
CON: 14 (+2)
INT: 10 (+0)
WIS: 12 (+1)
CHA: 14 (+2)

Spell Save DC: 8 + 2 + 2 = 12
Spell Attack Modifier: 2 + 2 = 4

Spell Save DC for Sacred Flame: 8 + 2 + 1 = 11

Magic Initiate (5e PHB page 168):

Choose a class{cleric}: You learn two cantrips of your choice from that class’s spell list. … Your spellcasting ability for these spells depends on the class you chose: … Wisdom for cleric

Sacred Flame (5e PHB page 272):

Cantrip.
Casting Time: 1 action.
Flame-like radiance descends on a creature that you can see within range. The target must succeed on a Dexterity saving throw or take 1d8 radiant damage. The target gains no benefit from cover for this saving throw.

Firebolt (5e PHB page 242):

Cantrip.
Casting Time: 1 action
You hurl a mote of fire at a creature or object within range. Make a ranged spell attack against the target. On a hit, the target takes 1d10 fire damage. A flammable object hit by this spell ignites if it isn’t being worn or carried.

Shadow (53 MM page 269),

Armor Class 12
Hit Points 16 (3d8 + 3)
DEX: 14 (+2)
Damage Vulnerabilities radiant
Damage Resistances … fire …

Damage Resistance and Vulnerability (53 PHB page 197)

If a creature or an object has resistance to a damage type, damage of that type is halved against it. If a creature or an object has vulnerability to a damage type, damage of that type is doubled against it.

Assuming that we don’t have to worry about the Sorcerer taking any damage (just for the sake of the question, otherwise it boils down to the Sorcerer dying after a few rounds), which spell would be the better choice to deal the maximum amount of damage on average within an arbitrary but finite amount of rounds?

Would UV Rounds and Silver Nitrate Rounds be effective on vampires/werewolves?

I’m running a campaign in Vampire: The Masquerade, and I wanted to give the players these two types of ammo (UV Rounds and Silver Nitrate Rounds). Would these two have any effect on the supernatural beings, or are they incompatible with the World of Darkness setting?

Note: These come from the Underworld universe. I don’t want to give the player an instant killer, but an affordable way to use guns in the World of Darkness. By affordable I mean that their use become more usual than bladed weapons, as long as guns don’t deal lethal damage to vampires.

user password authentication and cracking password – multiple rounds of hashing

when multiple rounds of hashing are performed, why is it that john the ripper cannot crack hashed passwords? (multiple rounds of hashes basically). On the other hand, the system can, however, authenticate a user even when passwords are stored using multiple hashing. how does it do that? is it that John the ripper can only crack 1 level of the hashed password. and the system just matches the hash to the database or something?

How well will the max transformation rounds in Keepassx deter an attacker for the next twenty years?

Keepassx lets you decide how many transformations rounds need to be run in order to unlock your Keepass database. In my version of Keepassx (2.0.3) the max value seems to be 999,999,999. With that setting it takes my laptop about 22 seconds to unlock the database. I imagine that a beefy workstation would take less time than that. With that in mind, how well can this setting deter someone else from accessing your database, assuming that they managed to get access to it? Let’s just say an individual (not an organization) with a computer made to do this kind of work. How much work can you assume that they will have to do per try with the kind of computation power that they will have access to in twenty years?

Add additional rounds on existing SHA-512 salted hashes without knowing clear text password?

Assuming you have a salted SHA-512 password hash with 5000 rounds. For example:

{CRYPT}$  6$  rounds=5000$  6835c5dcf0bb7310$  hVod/jy7uONMSa.FVpLHb/2OrWpAj3lB/.RWdvgd3YaQAnzN3rorGhaziswwGsHfOWZYkLwXhHKnCy5By2CKr0 
  • Could one add more rounds (e.g. another 5000 rounds) to this hashed password without knowing the cleartext password such that the hash value still would be valid if a user’s cleartext password is verified?

  • If this is possible as I think it should be, are there existing tools or code to “add more rounds” to this hash value?

Btw. the cleartext password for the above hash is “password” but assume would not know this.