In Computer Theory is L1+L2 the same as L1 ∪ L2?

I’ve searched for the answer on google but received ambiguous results

I’ve searched my books but they confuse me more with different notations

I’ve even tried to search if the question I have has been asked here previously but no results and now I’m forced to ask this question

It’s embarrassing but I really need answers and I couldn’t think of any other place to ask about this

Are the Player’s Basic Rules the same as the Player’s Handbook when it comes to combat?

I have seen quite a few threads that compare the free basic rules with the Player’s Handbook for 5e, but none of them seem to mention combat. I have played a lot of 3.5, and I always felt the combat rules were a bit too much for me. After reading the basic combat rules, I was pleased they were simpler, but I don’t know if that is because it is a basic rule set.

Are the combat rules in the basic rules the same as in the full version (simpler grappling, fewer attacks of opportunity, fewer combat actions available, etc.)?

Meta_query on same meta key, with diffrenct values

i’m trying to get_users with the meta_query where i need to find users where either they don’t have the meta key, or it is blank.

It seems like everywhere i look, i should be able to use the OR on the relation and then use the same meta key, but how ever i set it up, it does not work.

My code:

$  ors[] = array(    'key'   => 'death_date',    'compare' => '=',    'value' => '',    'type' => 'NUMERIC'                     ); $  ors[] = array(    'key'   => 'death_date',    'compare' => 'NOT EXISTS'                     );  $  args = array(    'meta_query' => array(    'relation' => 'or',    $  ors, ));  $  return = get_users($  args); 

Both of them work separately, but not together.

Can you use your action to interrupt another player action that was played in the same round?

I think the title is pretty straight forward, I’ll just add some context.

I play in a game when everyone play the way we want at our own turn : saying to another player what he should do is forbidden. Your turn = your action.

I think this is pretty fun and it add a lot of stress in difficult fights since we can’t coordinate ourselve on runtime but, sometime, someone make a mistake that could be avoided in a roleplay way.

So, is it possible to use our own action to interrupt another player action that was played earlier in the same round ?


Should en and x-default be included on the same page for hreflang tags?

We are using a tool such as SEMRush where it is flagging that the en and x-default values for the hreflang are causing conflicts.

Should both en and x-default be included for the hreflang tags?

This is what we have now.

<html> <head>   <link rel="alternate" hreflang="de" href=""> <link rel="alternate" hreflang="en" href=""> <link rel="alternate" hreflang="x-default" href=""> <link rel="alternate" hreflang="es" href=""> </head> <body>  .... </body> </html> 

Can two Cloud of Daggers be cast in the same area by different spell casters?

Quick overview of the situation, the party is 3rd level and the warlock and the bard can now both cast cloud of daggers. We were in a lizardfolk den and they saw us and came running down a 5-foot corridor. The bard was first in initiative and threw out the cloud of daggers right on them. The warlock went next and wanted to do the same. Is there any ruling against this? The lizardfolk were next and would take the 4d4 from the bard at the start of their turn. Would they also take the warlock’s 4d4 (A grand total of 8d4), or do these effects need to be staggered?

Can Programmed Illusion respond to its environs, or must it perform the same thing every time?

Programmed Illusion:

You create an illusion of an object, a creature, or some other visible phenomenon within range that activates when a specific condition occurs. The illusion is imperceptible until then. It must be no larger than a 30-foot cube, and you decide when you cast the spell how the illusion behaves and what sounds it makes. This scripted performance can last up to 5 minutes. When the condition you specify occurs, the illusion springs into existence and performs in the manner you described. Once the illusion finishes performing, it disappears and remains dormant for 10 minutes. After this time, the illusion can be activated again. The triggering condition can be as general or as detailed as you like, though it must be based on visual or audible conditions that occur within 30 feet of the area. For example, you could create an illusion of yourself to appear and warn off others who attempt to open a trapped door, or you could set the illusion to trigger only when a creature says the correct word or phrase. Physical interaction with the image reveals it to be an illusion, because things can pass through it. A creature that uses its action to examine the image can determine that it is an illusion with a successful Intelligence (Investigation) check against your spell save DC. If a creature discerns the illusion for what it is, the creature can see through the image, and any noise it makes sounds hollow to the creature.

I suppose this really revolves around what the spell description means by “scripted performance”. Is this a script as in like a play, where it is acted out verbatim from start to finish, no matter how it is triggered? Or is it “scripted” in the sense of a bash script, where parameters can be specified such that it can respond to the environment? Can you have a conversation with this illusion? Can you have it refer to the weather or the time of day?

The thespian interpretation is supported by the fact that it calls it a “performance”.

The computational interpretation is supported by the fact that the spell is called “programmed illusion”. Also, the major image spell is able to carry on conversations, so it would seem silly to not allow programmed illusion to do that as well.

My instinct is that the spell would be worded differently if it was intended to be able to respond to the environment, but I am not sure.

Which is it?

If you cast Blindness/Deafness on the same creature twice, what conditions are applied?

After researching into how spell effects stack, I find some ambiguity regarding certain spells that have multiple possible effects.

Notably, this answer regarding stacking spell effects contains updated information from the DMG errata:

Combining Game Effects (p. 252). This is a new subsection at the end of the “Combat” section:

Different game features can affect a target at the same time. But when two or more game features have the same name, only the effects of one of them—the most potent one—apply while the durations of the effects overlap. For example, if a target is ignited by a fire elemental’s Fire Form trait, the ongoing fire damage doesn’t increase if the burning target is subjected to that trait again. Game features include spells, class features, feats, racial traits, monster abilities, and magic items. See the related rule in the ‘Combining Magical Effects’ section of chapter 10 in the Player’s Handbook.

There are, however, no references in deciding how to determine what “the most potent one” may be when not using raw numbers (such as with paladin auras).

This is also applicable to spells like contagion, which inflicts a “natural disease” (and you can be afflicted by multiple natural diseases).

If both effects of blindness/deafness cannot influence a character at the same time, how do you determine which one takes effect (assuming both casts are at the same spell level)?

How do you choose active effects when two instances of the same spell/feature overlap?

There are two slightly different rules when it comes to overlapping game features, one from the PHB (post-errata) and one from the DMG (post-errata):


The effects of different spells add together while the durations of those spells overlap. The effects of the same spell cast multiple times don’t combine, however. Instead, the most potent effect – such as the highest bonus – from those castings applies while their durations overlap, or the most recent effect applies if the castings are equally potent and their durations overlap.


Different game features can affect a target at the same time. But when two or more game features have the same name, only the effects of one of them—the most potent one—apply while the durations of the effects overlap.

The current answer to my question “Do the Stone Golem's Slow feature and the Slow spell combine?” states the following:

[…] Backed by the PHB’s mention of effect-based potency, I compare each individual effect two features of the same name have and then pick the strongest for each. That also constitutes that the unique parts of one feature are compared against “nothing”, meaning by virtue of existing they’d trump the lack of any counterpart in their twin […]

And goes on to apply this method to blindness/deafness allowing both effects to persist simultaneously in direct contrast to the current answer to the following: “If you cast Blindness/Deafness on the same creature twice, what conditions are applied?”

Which method of comparing two features is correct:

  1. One feature/spell is determined to be “more potent” and all effects of the other feature/spell are ignored.

  2. The effects are compared one-by-one, thus different parts of each feature/spell can be active at once.

What happens when multiple Heat Metal spells are cast on the same object?

Suppose that the mages Mary and Merry both cast Heat Metal on the metal armor of an enemy fighter, Fred. Both mages use their bonus action on subsequent turns to continue dealing damage to Fred. How much damage does Fred take each round, and when does he take it? What additional effects does Fred suffer, and how long do they last? For the sake of argument, let’s say that the initiative order each round is Mary, Merry, then Fred.