Tight upper bound for forming an $n$ element Red-Black Tree from scratch

I learnt that in a order-statistic tree (augmented Red-Black Tree, in which each node $ x$ contains an extra field denoting the number of nodes in the sub-tree rooted at $ x$ ) finding the $ i$ th order statistics can be done in $ O(lg(n))$ time in the worst case. Now in case of an array representing the dynamic set of elements finding the $ i$ th order statistic can be achieved in the $ O(n)$ time in the worst case.[ where $ n$ is the number of elements].

Now I felt like finding a tight upper bound for forming an $ n$ element Red-Black Tree so that I could comment about which alternative is better : "maintain the set elements in an array and perform query in $ O(n)$ time" or "maintaining the elements in a Red-Black Tree (formation of which takes $ O(f(n))$ time say) and then perform query in $ O(lg(n))$ time".

So a very rough analysis is as follows, inserting an element into an $ n$ element Red-Black Tree takes $ O(lg(n))$ time and there are $ n$ elements to insert , so it takes $ O(nlg(n))$ time. Now this analysis is quite loose as when there are only few elements in the Red-Black tree the height is quite less and so is the time to insert in the tree.

I tried to attempt a detailed analysis as follows (but failed however):

Let while trying to insert the $ j=i+1$ th element the height of the tree is atmost $ 2.lg(i+1)+1$ . For an appropriate $ c$ , the total running time,

$ $ T(n)\leq \sum_{j=1}^{n}c.(2.lg(i+1)+1)$ $

$ $ =c.\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}(2.lg(i+1)+1)$ $

$ $ =c.\left[\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}2.lg(i+1)+\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}1\right]$ $

$ $ =2c\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}lg(i+1)+cn\tag1$ $


$ $ \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}lg(i+1)=lg(1)+lg(2)+lg(3)+…+lg(n)=lg(1.2.3….n)\tag2$ $

Now $ $ \prod_{k=1}^{n}k\leq n^n, \text{which is a very loose upper bound}\tag 3$ $

Using $ (3)$ in $ (2)$ and substituting the result in $ (1)$ we have $ T(n)=O(nlg(n))$ which is the same as the rough analysis…

Can I do anything better than $ (3)$ ?

All the nodes referred to are the internal nodes in the Red-Black Tree.

New user, starting from scratch

I’m really sorry if I sound thick, I was given a windows vista laptop, I know it’s dangerous to go online with it but it was never used for 10 years, I’ve got a bootable USB and really like what I seeing, my problem is, everything is working apart from WiFi, does Linux work like Windows whereas you need to find and download drivers? If so, where could I find them? I don’t want to install ubuntu if I can’t use it online, thanks in advance and sorry for my lack of knowledge

How to prove NP-hardness from scratch?

I am working on a problem of whose complexity is unknown. By the nature of the problem, I cannot use long edges as I please, so 3SAT and variants are almost impossible to use.

Finally, I have decided to go for the most primitive method — Turing Machines.

Oddly enough, I could not find any example of NP-hardness reduction done directly by modeling the problem as a language, and showing that a deterministic Turing Machine cannot decide whether a given instance belongs to that language (I might’ve messed up with the terminology here).

So, assuming that there are no problems to perform an NP-hardness reduction, how does one prove that a problem is NP-hard? Are there any publications that does this?

Starting to create websites in HTML/CSS from scratch – basic instructions

Dear all,

I have created some pages already in WordPress e.g. https://eurogetwork.com/tworzenie-stron-internetowych-po-niemiecku/

Now I would like to resign from WordPress and start coding the pages from Scratch, because I want to have full control of what I am designing. If you have some basic and core instructions, which will help me to start with, please share.

Many thanks in advance.

best regards,

invalid type argument of -> compiling gmp-impl.h when using Linux from Scratch (LFS)

I am working on section 5.5 of LFS :

I haven’t ran into errors but I get an error when trying to make gcc. Here is the error:

In file included from ../../../gmp/mpf/set_str.c:58: ../../../gmp/mpf/set_str.c: In function '__gmpf_set_str': ../../../gmp/gmp-impl.h:4383:29: warning: implicit declaration of function 'localeconv' [-Wimplicit-function-declaration]  #define GMP_DECIMAL_POINT  (localeconv()->decimal_point)                              ^~~~~~~~~~ ../../../gmp/mpf/set_str.c:133:24: note: in expansion of macro 'GMP_DECIMAL_POINT'    const char  *point = GMP_DECIMAL_POINT;                         ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ../../../gmp/gmp-impl.h:4383:41: error: invalid type argument of '->' (have 'int')  #define GMP_DECIMAL_POINT  (localeconv()->decimal_point)                                          ^~ ../../../gmp/mpf/set_str.c:133:24: note: in expansion of macro 'GMP_DECIMAL_POINT'    const char  *point = GMP_DECIMAL_POINT;                         ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Makefile:448: recipe for target 'set_str.lo' failed make[5]: *** [set_str.lo] Error 1 make[5]: Leaving directory '/mnt/lfs/sources/gcc-8.2.0/build/gmp/mpf' Makefile:956: recipe for target 'all-recursive' failed make[4]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1 make[4]: Leaving directory '/mnt/lfs/sources/gcc-8.2.0/build/gmp' Makefile:775: recipe for target 'all' failed make[3]: *** [all] Error 2 make[3]: Leaving directory '/mnt/lfs/sources/gcc-8.2.0/build/gmp' Makefile:5645: recipe for target 'all-stage2-gmp' failed make[2]: *** [all-stage2-gmp] Error 2 make[2]: Leaving directory '/mnt/lfs/sources/gcc-8.2.0/build' Makefile:21584: recipe for target 'stage2-bubble' failed make[1]: *** [stage2-bubble] Error 2 make[1]: Leaving directory '/mnt/lfs/sources/gcc-8.2.0/build' Makefile:896: recipe for target 'all' failed make: *** [all] Error 2 

I had to move a lot of header files from the host computer in order to get the steps before this to work. I had to manually add header files to /tools/x86_64-pc-linux/include. I did those by coping the files that were throwing errors and adding them to the include folder. This may have caused a problem also but I am not certain of it.