Is it ok and useful to keep a security audit report after completing an audit?

I recently ran a couple of security audits for some friends, and was thinking about doing some more. Before I do though, I wanted to know whether I should keep the audit reports and, if so, how? I understand that it’s insecure to keep it, but at the same time, what happens if the client loses the files/report and needs new copies?

Router security IP and Mac

There was no power outage nor was the router power disconnected but the entire history of the Mac and IPv4 addresses has been reset and is no longer on the router login and password for your device at

  1. Has it been hacked or is there anything that’s not out of the ordinary other than a power outage or manually disconnecting that would cause that?

  2. Is there any way for me to recover the history including the list of Mac Addresses that connected to the router?


Are the security basics of a non-wifi router different from securing your desktop?

I have studied much about securing a desktop from enabling firewall to browsing internet safely among other things. I also know that many steps can be taken to improve the security of wifi routers. But if I am using a non-wifi router or a usb dongle with wifi turned off, are there any steps I can take to secure that router? Or is a non-wifi router secure?

I have read about web cams that are vulnerable and can be hacked so what about routers? Can you give me an introduction? How can I find out if my router has any vulnerabilities?

I am getting a message that this question appears subjective so I will tell you that basically what I am asking is: how does router security work?

How does a security countermeasure failure impact a system?

In the context of safety-critical systems, such as transportation systems, it is important to verify if such systems meet/do not meet safety requirements. ISO26262 expresses these requirements as a maximum number of failures per hour of operation. It is generally of a very small magnitude for the most critical components of a system, i.e., 10^-9 failures per hour of operation at most.

As there is a trend towards inter-connected safety-critical systems, there are higher risks that such systems become the target of remote attackers. In this context, remote attackers can eventually control the system remotely (e.g., CarShark attack or Jeep Cherokee remote control). Therefore, there are cyber-attacks that can impact the safety of the system (i.e., endanger the environment of the system).

Therefore, more and more works are dedicated to integrate security and safety such that the addition of security countermeasures inside a system can increase the system overall safety. In existing works, to the best of my knowledge, nobody takes into account the fact that security mechanisms can fail, just as any other components.

My question to you guys is the following: do you have any information about what could be the consequences of a security countermeasure failure on a component or system safety? Is it possible for example that, if an encryption mechanism fails, it flips a bit in a message which could provoke (eventually) a DoS (or anything else), that could lead to a catastrophic event (again, think of it as a worst case)? Is there any discussion/document about this?

Is it a major security risk if your client_secret gets displayed for about 30 min – 1 hour before you notice it showing and you can remove it?

Did something stupid, and asked a question on stackoverflow posted a little too much info without realizing it.

Is it a major security risk if your client_secret gets displayed for about 30 min – 1 hour on stack overflow before you notice it showing and you can remove it?

Need a conceptual illustration of “Security Software Stack Elements” at (a) Endpoints (b) Servers (c) Central Ops (Control/Console) [on hold]

Need a conceptual illustration of “Security Software Stack Elements” at (a) Endpoints (b) Servers (c) Central Ops (Control/Console)

Endpoint : Antivirus, USB/Port blocking, Malware/Ransomware detection (ie ATP, FireEye) , Proxy for controlling end user web surfing (ie ZScaler), DLP, Rights Management Services (RMS), MDM

Servers : Server ANtiVirus, Lockdown of Server-to-Server communications, Server exe fingerprinting/checksumming, etc

Central Console : Logs, COnsolidated Reporting, Analysis

There are so many tools, but they overlap and its not clear what software does what and therefore the need for a key checklist of endpoint and server-side security functionality required.

Hence request a list if someone has made a good/useful diagram…

PC Component Firmware integrity and security

I recently bought a new laptop.

If you read the news you must’ve noticed Vault 6 and Vault 7 leaks (from Wikileaks), which contain rootkits which sit on your Hard Drive Firmware, MBR and other hidden partitions. Since it’s out in the open not only state actors should be able to make such kind of hard to get rid of malware.

How do I check the integrity (checksums or similar) and secure the firmware on my hardware components (Hard Drive, Motherboard, SSD, USB Hub etc etc)?

What’s the Minimum Amount of Security Your Website Needs?

Have you checked that your website is secure even if you think your site is too small for the hackers to bother with?


over half (54%) of the businesses surveyed for the 2018 State of SMB Cybersecurity report believe they’re too small to be a target for hackers. But the data paints a different picture:

  • 67% of small- and medium-sized businesses were attacked in 2018;
  • 82% of those attacked had antivirus software installed on their systems;
  • 72% had intrusion detection systems in place.

What’s the Minimum Amount of Security Your Website Needs?

How did you do on the checklist provided?